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School of Pharmacy : Rubinstein Abraham

Researchers

 Last updated June 2021 - School of Pharmacy

List of Publications

(1) Sharon Gabbay R, Rubinstein A. Controlling the release rate of topotecan from PLGA spheres and increasing its cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells by co-loading with calcium chloride. Int J Pharm 2021;602.

(2) Kenett RS, Rubinstein A. Generalizing research findings for enhanced reproducibility: an approach based on verbal alternative representations. Scientometrics 2021;126(5):4137-4151.

(3) Gabbay RS, Kenett RS, Scaffaro R, Rubinstein A. Synchronizing the release rates of salicylate and indomethacin from degradable chitosan hydrogel and its optimization by definitive screening design. Eur J Pharm Sci 2018;125:102-109.

(4) Tiwari S, Tirosh B, Rubinstein A. Increasing the affinity of cationized polyacrylamide-paclitaxel nanoparticles towards colon cancer cells by a surface recognition peptide. Int J Pharm 2017;531(1):281-291.

(5) Bloch MBD, Yavin E, Nissan A, Ariel I, Kenett R, Brass D, et al. The effect of linker type and recognition peptide conjugation chemistry on tissue affinity and cytotoxicity of charged polyacrylamide. J Control Release 2017;257:102-117.

(6) Abutbul E, Rubinstein A. Colon-targeted delivery systems. Biodrug Delivery Systems: Fundamentals, Applications and Clinical Development; 2016. p. 138-171.

(7) Kolevzon N, Hashoul D, Naik S, Rubinstein A, Yavin E. Single point mutation detection in living cancer cells by far-red emitting PNA-FIT probes. Chem Commun 2016;52(11):2405-2407.

(8) Bloch M, Jablonowski L, Yavin E, Moradov D, Djavsarov I, Nyska A, et al. Multi-modal detection of colon malignancy by NIR-tagged recognition polymers and ultrasound contrast agents. Int J Pharm 2015;478(2):504-516.

(9) Bloch M, Kenett R, Jablonowski L, Wheatley M, Yavin E, Rubinstein A. A multifactorial analysis of complex pharmaceutical platforms: An application of design of experiments to targetable polyacrylamide and ultrasound contrast agents. Polym Adv Technol 2015;26(7):898-905.

(10) Perlstein H, Turovsky T, Gimeson P, Cohen R, Rubinstein A, Danino D, et al. Thermotropic behavior of celecoxib-loaded beta-casein micelles: Relevance to the improved bioavailability. Eur J Nanomed 2015;7(4):303-312.

(11) Moradov D, Shifrin H, Harel E, Nadler-Milbauer M, Weinstock M, Srebnik M, et al. The anti-inflammatory activity of a novel fused-cyclopentenone phosphonate and its potential in the local treatment of experimental colitis. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2015;2015.

(12) Kam Y, Rubinstein A, Naik S, Djavsarov I, Halle D, Ariel I, et al. Detection of a long non-coding RNA (CCAT1) in living cells and human adenocarcinoma of colon tissues using FIT-PNA molecular beacons. Cancer Lett 2014;352(1):90-96.

(13) Perlstein H, Bavli Y, Turovsky T, Rubinstein A, Danino D, Stepensky D, et al. Beta-casein nanocarriers of celecoxib for improved oral bioavailability. Eur J Nanomed 2014;6(4):217-226.

(14) Cohen S, Pellach M, Kam Y, Grinberg I, Corem-Salkmon E, Rubinstein A, et al. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer. Mater Sci Eng C 2013;33(2):923-931.

(15) Bloch M, Kam Y, Yavin E, Moradov D, Nissan A, Ariel I, et al. The relative roles of charge and a recognition peptide in luminal targeting of colorectal cancer by fluorescent polyacrylamide. Eur J Pharm Sci 2012;47(5):904-913.

(16) Smoum R, Rubinstein A, Dembitsky VM, Srebnik M. Boron containing compounds as protease inhibitors. Chem Rev 2012;112(7):4156-4220.

(17) Moradov D, Rubinstein A, Gelman D, Srebnik M. Molybdenum-mediated deconjugation of α,β-unsaturated fused-cyclopentenone phosphonates. Synthesis 2012;44(8):1258-1262.

(18) Kam Y, Rubinstein A, Nissan A, Halle D, Yavin E. Detection of endogenous K-ras mRNA in living cells at a single base resolution by a PNA molecular beacon. Mol Pharm 2012;9(3):685-693.

(19) Khazanov E, Yavin E, Pascal A, Nissan A, Kohl Y, Reimann-Zawadzki M, et al. Detecting a secreted gastric cancer biomarker molecule by targeted nanoparticles for real-time diagnostics. Pharm Res 2012;29(4):983-993.

(20) Nadler-Milbauer M, Apter L, Haupt Y, Haupt S, Barenholz Y, Minko T, et al. Synchronized release of Doxil and Nutlin-3 by remote degradation of polysaccharide matrices and its possible use in the local treatment of colorectal cancer. J Drug Targeting 2011;19(10):859-873.

(21) Harel E, Rubinstein A, Nissan A, Khazanov E, Milbauer M, Barenholz Y, et al. Enhanced transferrin receptor expression by proinflammatory cytokines in enterocytes as a means for local delivery of drugs to inflamed gut mucosa. PLoS ONE 2011;6(9).

(22) Harel E, Rubinstein A, Chen W, Breuer E, Tirosh B. Aminoalkylcarbamoylphosphonates reduce TNFα release from activated immune cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010;20(22):6518-6523.

(23) Nadler Milabuer M, Kam Y, Rubinstein A. Orally Administered Drug Delivery Systems to the Colon. Oral Controlled Release Formulation Design and Drug Delivery: Theory to Practice; 2010. p. 225-243.

(24) Khazanov E, Emmanuel N, Azab AK, Barenholz Y, Yavin E, Rubinstein A. Specific detection of gastric α-antitrypsin by immobilized trypsin on PolyHEMA films. Mol Pharm 2010;7(4):944-952.

(25) Tirosh B, Khatib N, Barenholz Y, Nissan A, Rubinstein A. Transferrin as a luminal target for negatively charged liposomes in the inflamed colonic mucosa. Mol Pharm 2009;6(4):1083-1091.

(26) Sinelnikove Y, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M, Quntar AAAA. Direct formation of cyclobutenylphosphonates from 1-alkynylphosphonates and Cp2ZrCl2/2EtMgCl/2CuCl. Tetrahedron Lett 2009;50(8):867-869.

(27) Moradov D, Quntar AAAA, Youssef M, Smoum R, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M. Mo(CO) 6-mediated intramolecular pauson-Khand reaction of substituted Diethyl 3-Allyloxy-1-Propynylphosphonates. J Org Chem 2009;74(3):1029-1033.

(28) Nadler-Milbauer M, Azab AK, Kleinstern J, Barenholz Y, Rubinstein A. In vitro and in vivo analysis of pulsatile biodegradation of mucoadhesive hydrogels. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2009;19(4):247-255.

(29) Azab AK, Kleinstern J, Srebnik M, Rubinstein A. The metastatic stage-dependent mucosal expression of sialic acid is a potential marker for targeting colon cancer with cationic polymers. Pharm Res 2008;25(2):379-386.

(30) Al Quntar AAA, Botvinik A, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M. Synthesis of 3-hydroxy-1-alkenylboronates via phosphine stabilized borylzirconacyclopropenes. Chem Commun 2008(43):5589-5591.

(31) Azab AK, Kleinstern J, Doviner V, Orkin B, Srebnik M, Nissan A, et al. Prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis formation in a breast cancer mouse model by biodegradable implant of 131I-norcholesterol. J Control Release 2007;123(2):116-122.

(32) Azab AK, Doviner V, Orkin B, Kleinstern J, Srebnik M, Nissan A, et al. Biocompatibility evaluation of crosslinked chitosan hydrogels after subcutaneous and intraperitoneal implantation in the rat. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2007;83(2):414-422.

(33) Smoum R, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M. Chitosan-pentaglycine-phenylboronic acid conjugate: A potential colon-specific platform for calcitonin. Bioconjugate Chem 2006;17(4):1000-1007.

(34) Haupt S, Kleinstern J, Haupt Y, Rubinstein A. Celecoxib can induce cell death independently of cyclooxygenase-2, p53, Mdm2, c-Abl and reactive oxygen species. Anti-Cancer Drugs 2006;17(6):609-619.

(35) Shibli A, Smoum R, Goldberg I, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M. α-Amino boronates as cyanoborane complexes: Crystal structure and inhibition properties for the serine proteases: α-chymotrypsin and trypsin. Appl Organomet Chem 2006;20(7):459-462.

(36) Jabbour A, Smoum R, Takrouri K, Shalom E, Zaks B, Steinberg D, et al. Pharmacologically active boranes. Pure Appl Chem 2006;78(7):1425-1453.

(37) Haupt S, Zioni T, Gati I, Kleinstern J, Rubinstein A. Luminal delivery and dosing considerations of local celecoxib administration to colorectal cancer. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006;28(3):204-211.

(38) Azab AK, Orkin B, Doviner V, Nissan A, Klein M, Srebnik M, et al. Crosslinked chitosan implants as potential degradable devices for brachytherapy: In vitro and in vivo analysis. J Control Release 2006;111(3):281-289.

(39) Jubeh TT, Nadler-Milbauer M, Barenholz Y, Rubinstein A. Local treatment of experimental colitis in the rat by negatively charged liposomes of catalase, TMN and SOD. J Drug Targeting 2006;14(3):155-163.

(40) Rubinstein A. Gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology and permeation pathways. Enhancement in Drug Delivery; 2006. p. 3-35.

(41) Azab A-, Srebnik M, Doviner V, Rubinstein A. Targeting normal and neoplastic tissues in the rat jejunum and colon with boronated, cationic acrylamide copolymers. J Control Release 2005;106(1-2):14-25.

(42) Smoum R, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M. Noncovalent inhibition of the serine proteases, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin by trifluoro(organo)borates. Org Biomol Chem 2005;3(5):941-944.

(43) Rubinstein A. Colonic drug delivery. Drug Discov Today Techn 2005;2(1):33-37.

(44) Jubeh TT, Antler S, Haupt S, Barenholz Y, Rubinstein A. Local prevention of oxidative stress in the intestinal epithelium of the rat by adhesive liposomes of superoxide dismutase and tempamine. Mol Pharm 2005;2(1):2-11.

(45) Jubeh TT, Barenholz Y, Rubinstein A. Differential adhesion of normal and inflamed rat colonic mucosa by charged liposomes. Pharm Res 2004;21(3):447-453.

(46) David A, Kopečková P, Minko T, Rubinstein A, Kopeček J. Design of a multivalent galactoside ligand for selective targeting of HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugates to human colon cancer cells. Eur J Cancer 2004;40(1):148-157.

(47) Smoum R, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M. Combined 1H, 13C and 11B NMR and mass spectral assignments of boronate complexes of D-(+)-glucose, D-(+)-mannose, methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, methyl-β-D-galactopyranoside and methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside. Magn Reson Chem 2003;41(12):1015-1020.

(48) Smoum R, Rubinstein A, Srebnik M. A study of the effect on nucleophilic hydrolytic activity of pancreatic elastase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine aminopeptidase by boronic acids in the presence of arabinogalactan: A subsequent study on the hydrolytic activity of chymotrypsin by boronic acids in the presence of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides. Bioorg Chem 2003;31(6):464-474.

(49) Haupt S, Rubinstein A. The colon as a possible target for orally administered peptide and protein drugs. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2002;19(6):499-551.

(50) David A, Kopecková P, Kopeček J, Rubinstein A. The role of galactose, lactose, and galactose valency in the biorecognition of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymers by human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Pharm Res 2002;19(8):1114-1122.

(51) Haupt S, Gil E, Tirosh R, Klinger E, Gad A, Rubinstein A. Regional peptide uptake study in the rat intestinal mucosa: Glatiramer acetate as a model drug. Pharm Res 2002;19(6):832-837.

(52) David A, Kopečková P, Rubinstein A, Kopeček J. Enhanced biorecognition and internalization of HPMA copolymers containing multiple or multivalent carbohydrate side-chains by human hepatocarcinoma cells. Bioconjugate Chem 2001;12(6):890-899.

(53) Baluom M, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. Improved intestinal absorption of sulpiride in rats with synchronized oral delivery systems. J Control Release 2001;70(1-2):139-147.

(54) Blau S, Kohen R, Bass P, Rubinstein A. Relation between colonic inflammation severity and total low-molecular- weight antioxidant profiles in experimental colitis. Dig Dis Sci 2000;45(6):1180-1187.

(55) Gliko-Kabir I, Yagen B, Baluom M, Rubinstein A. Phosphated crosslinked guar for colon-specific drug delivery - II. In vitro and in vivo evaluation in the rat. J Control Release 2000;63(1-2):129-134.

(56) Gliko-Kabir I, Yagen B, Penhasi A, Rubinstein A. Phosphated crosslinked guar for colon-specific drug delivery - I. Preparation and physicochemical characterization. J Control Release 2000;63(1-2):121-127.

(57) Rubinstein A. Natural polysaccharides as targeting tools of drugs to the human colon. Drug Dev Res 2000;50(3-4):435-439.

(58) Baluom M, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. Erratum: The importance of intestinal residence time of absorption enhancer on drug absorption and implication on formulative considerations (International Journal of Pharmaceutics (1998) 176 (21-30) PII: S0378517398002889). Int J Pharm 2000;193(2):265-266.

(59) Rubinstein A, Blau S, Bass P, Kohen R. The effect of adhesive antioxidant enzymes on experimental colitis in the rat. ACS Symp Ser 2000;752:78-89.

(60) Blau S, Jubeh TT, Haupt SM, Rubinstein A. Drug targeting by surface cationization. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2000;17(5):425-465.

(61) Blau S, Kohen R, Bass P, Rubinstein A. The effect of local attachment of cationized antioxidant enzymes on experimental colitis in the rat. Pharm Res 2000;17(9):1077-1084.

(62) Baluom M, Friedman M, Assaf P, Haj-Yehia AI, Rubinstein A. Synchronized release of sulpiride and sodium decanoate from HPMC matrices: A rational approach to enhance sulpiride absorption in the rat intestine. Pharm Res 2000;17(9):1071-1076.

(63) Blau S, Rubinstein A, Bass P, Singaram C, Kohen R. Differences in the reducing power along the rat GI tract: Lower antioxidant capacity of the colon. Mol Cell Biochem 1999;194(1-2):185-191.

(64) Gliko-Kabir I, Penhasi A, Rubinstein A. Characterization of crosslinked guar by thermal analysis. Carbohydr Res 1999;316(1-4):6-13.

(65) Role of synchronous release of sodium decanoate on sulpiride absorption in the intestine of the rat. American Chemical Society, Polymer Preprints, Division of Polymer Chemistry; 1999.

(66) Effect of adhesive antioxidant enzymes on experimental colitis in the rat. American Chemical Society, Polymer Preprints, Division of Polymer Chemistry; 1999.

(67) Baluom M, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. Erratum: The importance of intestinal residence time of absorption enhancer on drug absorption and implication on formulative considerations (International Journal of Pharmaceutics 176 (1998) (21-30) PII: S0378517398002889). Int J Pharm 1999;185(1):123-124.

(68) Baluom M, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. The involvement of P-glycoprotein in intestinal absorption and its implication on the design of oral delivery systems of sulpiride. Proc Control Release Soc 1999(26):329-330.

(69) Baluom M, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. The importance of intestinal residence time of absorption enhancer on drug absorption and implication on formulative considerations. Int J Pharm 1998;176(1):21-30.

(70) Gliko-Kabir I, Yagen B, Penhasi A, Rubinstein A. Low swelling, crosslinked guar and its potential use as colon-specific drug carrier. Pharm Res 1998;15(7):1019-1025.

(71) Tirosh B, Rubinstein A. Migration of adhesive and nonadhesive particles in the rat intestine under altered mucus secretion conditions. J Pharm Sci 1998;87(4):453-456.

(72) Blau S, Kohen R, Bass P, Rubinstein A. Local treatment with cationized antioxidant enzymes reduces experimental colitis in the rat. Proc Control Release Soc 1998(25):8-9.

(73) David A, Yagen B, Sintov A, Rubinstein A. Acrylic polymers for colonspecific drug delivery. STP Pharma Sci 1997;7(6):546-554.

(74) Baluom M, Friedman DI, Rubinstein A. Absorption enhancement of calcitonin in the rat intestine by carbopol-containing submicron emulsions. Int J Pharm 1997;154(2):235-243.

(75) Rubinstein A, Radai R, Friedman M, Fischer P, Rokem JS. The effect of intestinal bacteria adherence on drug diffusion through solid films under stationary conditions. Pharm Res 1997;14(4):503-507.

(76) Rubinstein A, Tirosh B, Baluom M, Nassar T, David A, Radai R, et al. The rationale for peptide drug delivery to the colon and the potential of polymeric carriers as effective tools. J Control Release 1997;46(1-2):59-73.

(77) Adkin DA, Kenyon CJ, Lerner EI, Landau I, Strauss E, Caron D, et al. The use of scintigraphy to provide 'proof of concept' for novel polysaccharide preparations designed for colonic drug delivery. Pharm Res 1997;14(1):103-107.

(78) Tirosh B, Baluom M, Nassar T, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. The effect of Eudragit RL-100 on the mechanical and mucoadhesion properties of polycarbophil dosage forms. J Control Release 1997;45(1):57-64.

(79) Rubinstein A, Gliko-Kabir I, Penhasi A, Yagen B. Enzyme dependent release of budesonide from crosslinked guar hydrogels. PROC CONTROL RELEASE SOC 1997(24):839-840.

(80) Sintov A, Simberg M, Rubinstein A. Absorption enhancement of captopril in the rat colon as a putative method for captopril delivery by extended release formulations. Int J Pharm 1996;143(1):101-106.

(81) Rubinstein A. Approaches and opportunities in colon-specific drug delivery. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 1995;12(2-3):101-149.

(82) Rubinstein A, Radai R. In vitro and in vivo analysis of colon specificity of calcium pectinate formulations. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1995;41(5):291-295.

(83) Rubinstein A, Gliko-Kabir I. Synthesis and swelling-dependent enzymatic degradation of borax-modified guar gum for colonic delivery purposes. STP PHARMA SCI 1995;5(1):41-46.

(84) Sintov A, Di-Capua N, Rubinstein A. Cross-linked chondroitin sulphate: characterization for drug delivery purposes. Biomaterials 1995;16(6):473-478.

(85) Tirosh B, Nasser T, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. Eudragit RL-100 as a physical stabilizer of polycarbophil hydrogels. PROC CONTROL RELEASE SOC 1995(22):358-359.

(86) Rubinstein A, Tirosh B. Mucus Gel Thickness and Turnover in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Rat: Response to Cholinergic Stimulus and Implication for Mucoadhesion. Pharm Res 1994;11(6):794-799.

(87) Baluom M, Meir R, Kohen R, Rubinstein A. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the scavenging properties of guar gum with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. PROC CONTROL RELEASE SOC 1994(21):752-753.

(88) Tirosh B, Rubinstein A. The varied mucus secretory response of the rat GI tract to cholinergic stimulus. PROC CONTROL RELEASE SOC 1993(20):186-187.

(89) Radai R, Rubinstein A. In vitro and in vivo analysis of colon specificity of calcium pectinate formulations. PROC CONTROL RELEASE SOC 1993(20):330-331.

(90) Rubinstein A, Kakunda A, Kohen R. Protection of the rat jejunal mucosa against oxidative injury by cationized superoxide dismutase. J Pharm Sci 1993;82(12):1285-1287.

(91) Sintov A, Ankol S, Levy DP, Rubinstein A. Enzymatic cleavage of disaccharide side groups in insoluble synthetic polymers: A new method for specific delivery of drugs to the colon. Biomaterials 1993;14(7):483-490.

(92) Kohen R, Shadmi V, Kakunda A, Rubinstein A. Prevention of oxidative damage in the rat jejunal mucosa by pectin. Br J Nutr 1993;69(3):789-800.

(93) Rubinstein A, Radai R, Ezra M, Pathak S, Rokem JS. In Vitro Evaluation of Calcium Pectinate: A Potential Colon-Specific Drug Delivery Carrier. Pharm Res 1993;10(2):258-263.

(94) Rubinstein A, Nakar D, Sintov A. Chondroitin sulfate: A potential biodegradable carrier for colon-specific drug delivery. Int J Pharm 1992;84(2):141-150.

(95) Kohen R, Kakunda A, Rubinstein A. The role of cationized catalase and cationized glucose oxidase in mucosal oxidative damage induced in the rat jejunum. J Biol Chem 1992;267(30):21349-21354.

(96) Rubinstein A, Nakar D, Sintov A. Colonic drug delivery: Enhanced release of indomethacin from cross-linked chondroitin matrix in rat cecal content. Pharm Res 1992;9(2):276-278.

(97) Rubinstein A, Ezra M, Rokem JS. Adhesion of bacteria on pectin casted films. Microbios 1992;70(284-285):163-170.

(98) Rubinstein A, Pathak YV, Kleinstern J, Reches A, Benita S. In vitro release and intestinal absorption of physostigmine salicylate from submicron emulsions. J Pharm Sci 1991;80(7):643-647.

(99) Pathak YV, Rubinstein A, Benita S. Enhanced stability of physostigmine salicylate in submicron o/w emulsion. Int J Pharm 1990;65(3):169-175.

(100) Rubinstein A. Microbially controlled drug delivery to the colon. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1990;11(6):465-475.

(101) Rubinstein A, Li VHK, Gruber P, Bass P, Robinson JR. Improved intestinal cannula for drug delivery studies in the dog. J Pharmacol Methods 1988;19(3):213-217.

(102) Gruber P, Rubinstein A, Li VHK, Bass P, Robinson JR. Gastric emptying of nondigestible solids in the fasted dog. J Pharm Sci 1987;76(2):117-122.

(103) Rubinstein A, Gonen A, Friedman M. Computerized model for evaluating the kinetics of in vitro release of valpromide from controlled‐release tablets under nonsink conditions. J Pharm Sci 1986;75(10):959-961.

(104) Rubinstein A, Bialer M, Friedman M, Raz I, Abramsky O. A combined approach to control valproic acid release via novel delivery system of valpromide: A kinetic and pharmacokinetic study. J Control Release 1986;4(1):33-38.

(105) Bialer M, Rubinstein A, Dubrovsky J, Raz I, Abramsky O. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of valpromide and valproic acid after intravenous administration in humans. Int J Pharm 1985;23(1):25-33.

(106) Bialer M, Rubinstein A, Raz I, Abramsky O. Pharmacokinetics of valpromide after oral administration of a solution and a tablet to healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1984;27(4):501-503.

(107) Bialer M, Rubinstein A. Pharmacokinetics of valpromide in dogs after various modes of administration. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1984;5(2):177-183.

(108) Bialer M, Friedman M, Rubinstein A. Rapid gas chromatographic assay for monitoring valproic acid and valpromide in plasma. J Pharm Sci 1984;73(7):991-993.

(109) Bialer M, Rubinstein A. A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of valpramide after intravenous administration in dogs. J Pharm Pharmacol 1983;35(9):607-609.

(110) Garti N, Magdassi S, Rubinstein A. A novel method for rapid non destructive determination of o/w creams stability. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1982;8(4):475-485.

(111) Garti N, Magdasi S, Rubinstein A. A new method for stability determination of semi-solid emulsions, using conductivity measurements. Colloids and Surfaces 1981;3(3):221-231.