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Citation: Citation formats

bibliography, citation angd reference

              Harman Science Library Harman Science Library 

Citation Purpuse

Why do I need to cite references?

When writing a paper you must acknowledge all the sources you rely on. This include written sources or oral communication either quoted word for word or summarized.

Any quoting done without citing the original source is considered plagiarism.

Styles

What are the citation styles in the science?

Two citation styles are predominantly used:

Name/Year system: this system uses the author's name and publication year in order to identify the reference within the text linking it to the bibliography.

Citation/Sequence system: this system rely on numbering the references by the order of their appearance in the text. Every reference gets a number the first time it appears in the text and it is identified by this number through out the entire text.

Citation Manuals

Are there any citation manuals?

Yes, there are a number of manuals in the various disciplines (chemistry, physics and biology) and every journal has it's own rules.

A list of manuals available in the library:

  • (CBE) General for all sciences:
    Council of Biology Editors. 2014. Style Manual Committee. Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors and publishers. 8th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    T 11 S386 2014
     
  • (ACS) Chemistry:
    Coghill AM, Garson LR, ed. 2006. The ACS style guide: effective communication of scientific information. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.

    T 11 D63 2006

    The ACS style guide online
     
  • (AIP) Physics:
    AIP Style Manual, 4th ed. http://web.mit.edu/me-ugoffice/communication/aip_style_4thed.pdf

 

CBE Style - examples

How to cite sources according to the CBE system in any of the sciences?

Using the Citation/Sequence system:

Book:

(4) Voet D, Voet JG. Biochemistry. New York: J Wiley; 1990.

Article in a collection:

(8) Kuret JA, Murad F. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon; 1990. p 1334-60.

Article in a scholarly journal:

(1) You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterology. 1980 Aug;79:311-4.

Article in an electronic journal:

4. Dalton R. Dinosaur curators plot mating game. Nature [Internet] 2002 [cited 2007 Nov 27] 420(6913): 259. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v420/n6913/pdf/420259b.pdf .

Website:

7. Online!: a reference guide to using internet sources [Internet] 2001. [cited 2007 Nov 27]. Available from: http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/index.html .

Using the Name/Year system:

Book:

Voet D, Voet JG. 1990. Biochemistry. New York: J. Wiley.

Article in a collection:

Kuret JA, Murad F. 1990. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. p 1334-60.

Article in a scholarly journal:

You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. 1980. Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterology. 79:311-4.

Article in an electronic journal:

Dalton R. 2002. Dinosaur curators plot mating game. Nature [Internet] [cited 2007 Nov 27] 420(6913): 259. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v420/n6913/pdf/420259b.pdf .

Website:

Online!: a reference guide to using internet sources [Internet] 2001. [cited 2007 Nov 27]. Available from: http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/index.html .

More information is available in:

Council of Biology Editors. 2006. Style Manual Committee. Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors and publishers. 7th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The manual is located in the reference collection of the library, on the first floor, shelf number: T 11 S386 2006