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School of Pharmacy : Mechoulam Raphael


 Last updated Septmber 2023 - School of Pharmacy

List of Publications


Shahen-Zoabi S, Smoum R, Bingor A, Grad E, Nemirovski A, Shekh-Ahmad T, et al. N-oleoyl glycine and N-oleoyl alanine attenuate alcohol self-administration and preference in mice. Translational Psychiatry [Internet]. 2023;13(1). Available from:


Colodete DAE, Silva NR, Pedrazzi JFC, Fogaça MV, Cortez I, Del-Bel EA, et al. Behavioral effects induced by the cannabidiol analogs HU-502 and HU-556. Behavioural Pharmacology [Internet]. 2023;34(4):213–24. Available from:


Lavi Y, Kogan NM, Topping LM, Liu C, McCann FE, Williams RO, et al. Novel Synthesis of C-Methylated Phytocannabinoids Bearing Anti-inflammatory Properties. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 2023;66(8):5536–49. Available from:


Hen-Shoval D, Moshe L, Indig-Naimer T, Mechoulam R, Shoval G, Zalsman G, et al. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Blockade Prevents Anti-Depressive-like Effect of Cannabidiol Acid Methyl Ester in Female WKY Rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences [Internet]. 2023;24(4). Available from:


Mechoulam R. A Delightful Trip Along the Pathway of Cannabinoid and Endocannabinoid Chemistry and Pharmacology. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology [Internet]. 2023;63:1–13. Available from:


Kogan NM, Begmatova D, Vinnikova L, Malitsky S, Itkin M, Sharon E, et al. Endocannabinoid basis of personality—Insights from animal model of social behavior. Frontiers in Pharmacology [Internet]. 2023;14. Available from:


Linher-Melville K, Mechoulam R, Singh G. Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), features and profiles: Anti-hyperalgesic effects [Internet]. Medicinal Usage of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. 2023. Available from:


Carmon I, Zecharyahu L, Elayyan J, Meka SRK, Reich E, Kandel L, et al. HU308 Mitigates Osteoarthritis by Stimulating Sox9-Related Networks of Carbohydrate Metabolism. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research [Internet]. 2023;38(1):154–70. Available from:


Carmon I, Smoum R, Farhat E, Reich E, Kandel L, Yekhtin Z, et al. A Fenchone Derivative Effectively Abrogates Joint Damage Following Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in Lewis Rats. Cells [Internet]. 2022;11(24). Available from:


Souza JDS, Zuardi AW, Guimarães FS, Osório FDL, Loureiro SR, Campos AC, et al. Maintained anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol after treatment discontinuation in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Pharmacology [Internet]. 2022;13. Available from:


Crippa JAS, Pacheco JC, Zuardi AW, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, Osório FDL, et al. Cannabidiol for COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Symptoms (CANDIDATE Study): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research [Internet]. 2022;7(5):658–69. Available from:


Cortez IL, Silva NR, Rodrigues NS, Pedrazzi JFC, Del Bel EA, Mechoulam R, et al. HU-910, a CB2 receptor agonist, reverses behavioral changes in pharmacological rodent models for schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry [Internet]. 2022;117. Available from:


Sionov RV, Banerjee S, Bogomolov S, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Steinberg D. Targeting the Achilles’ Heel of Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by the Endocannabinoid Anandamide. International Journal of Molecular Sciences [Internet]. 2022;23(14). Available from:


Golan H, Mechoulam R, Smoum R, Cohen-Zada E, Pri-Chen S, Wiener S, et al. Anti-Tumorigenic Effect of a Novel Derivative of 2-Hydroxyoleic Acid and the Endocannabinoid Anandamide on Neuroblastoma Cells. Biomedicines [Internet]. 2022;10(7). Available from:


Bar-Lev Schleider L, Mechoulam R, Sikorin I, Naftali T, Novack V. Adherence, Safety, and Effectiveness of Medical Cannabis and Epidemiological Characteristics of the Patient Population: A Prospective Study. Frontiers in Medicine [Internet]. 2022;9. Available from:


Smoum R, Haj C, Hirsch S, Nemirovski A, Yekhtin Z, Bogoslavsky B, et al. Fenchone Derivatives as a Novel Class of CB2 Selective Ligands: Design, Synthesis, X-ray Structure and Therapeutic Potential. Molecules [Internet]. 2022;27(4). Available from:


Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Parker LA. Effect of oleoyl glycine and oleoyl alanine on lithium chloride induced nausea in rats and vomiting in shrews. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2022;239(2):377–83. Available from:


Silva NR, Gomes FIF, Lopes AHP, Cortez IL, dos Santos JC, Silva CEA, et al. The Cannabidiol Analog PECS-101 Prevents Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain via PPARγ Receptors. Neurotherapeutics [Internet]. 2022;19(1):434–49. Available from:


Murillo-Rodríguez E, Millán-Aldaco D, Arankowsky-Sandoval G, Yamamoto T, Pertwee RG, Parker L, et al. Assessing the treatment of cannabidiolic acid methyl ester: a stable synthetic analogue of cannabidiolic acid on c-Fos and NeuN expression in the hypothalamus of rats. Journal of Cannabis Research [Internet]. 2021;3(1). Available from:


Banerjee S, Sionov RV, Feldman M, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Steinberg D. Anandamide alters the membrane properties, halts the cell division and prevents drug efflux in multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2021;11(1). Available from:


Ayoub SM, Piscitelli F, Silvestri C, Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Smoum R, et al. Spontaneous and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Behaviors From Chronic Opiates are Accompanied by Changes in N-Oleoylglycine and N-Oleoylalanine Levels in the Brain and Ameliorated by Treatment With These Mediators. Frontiers in Pharmacology [Internet]. 2021;12. Available from:


Crippa JAS, Zuardi AW, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, De Lima Osório F, Loureiro SR, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol plus Standard Care vs Standard Care Alone for the Treatment of Emotional Exhaustion and Burnout among Frontline Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Network Open [Internet]. 2021;4(8). Available from:


Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Pertwee RG, Mechoulam R, Parker LA. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research [Internet]. 2021;6(4):266–74. Available from:


Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Sullivan MT, DeVuono MV, Lichtman AH, Di Marzo V, et al. N-Oleoylglycine and N-Oleoylalanine Do Not Modify Tolerance to Nociception, Hyperthermia, and Suppression of Activity Produced by Morphine. Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience [Internet]. 2021;13. Available from:


Kogan NM, Peters M, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoid quinones—a review and novel observations. Molecules [Internet]. 2021;26(6). Available from:


Feldman M, Sionov RV, Mechoulam R, Steinberg D. Anti-biofilm activity of cannabidiol against candida albicans. Microorganisms [Internet]. 2021;9(2):1–17. Available from:


Di Bartolomeo M, Stark T, Maurel OM, Iannotti FA, Kuchar M, Ruda-Kucerova J, et al. Crosstalk between the transcriptional regulation of dopamine D2 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in schizophrenia: Analyses in patients and in perinatal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-exposed rats. Pharmacological Research [Internet]. 2021;164. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Foreword. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology [Internet]. 2021;1264:ix–xi. Available from:


Sionov RV, Feldman M, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Steinberg D. Anandamide prevents the adhesion of filamentous Candida albicans to cervical epithelial cells. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2020;10(1). Available from:


Ayoub SM, Smoum R, Farag M, Atwal H, Collins SA, Rock EM, et al. Oleoyl alanine (HU595): a stable monomethylated oleoyl glycine interferes with acute naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male rats. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2020;237(9):2753–65. Available from:


Rock EM, Sullivan MT, Collins SA, Goodman H, Limebeer CL, Mechoulam R, et al. Evaluation of repeated or acute treatment with cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) or CBDA methyl ester (HU-580) on nausea and/or vomiting in rats and shrews. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2020;237(9):2621–31. Available from:


Stark T, Di Bartolomeo M, Di Marco R, Drazanova E, Platania CBM, Iannotti FA, et al. Altered dopamine D3 receptor gene expression in MAM model of schizophrenia is reversed by peripubertal cannabidiol treatment. Biochemical Pharmacology [Internet]. 2020;177. Available from:


Zhu YF, Linher-Melville K, Niazmand MJ, Sharma M, Shahid A, Zhu KL, et al. An evaluation of the anti-hyperalgesic effects of cannabidiolic acid-methyl ester in a preclinical model of peripheral neuropathic pain. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2020;177(12):2712–25. Available from:


Piscitelli F, Guida F, Luongo L, Iannotti FA, Boccella S, Verde R, et al. Protective Effects of N-Oleoylglycine in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. ACS Chemical Neuroscience [Internet]. 2020;11(8):1117–28. Available from:


Murillo-Rodríguez E, Arankowsky-Sandoval G, Pertwee RG, Parker L, Mechoulam R. Sleep and neurochemical modulation by cannabidiolic acid methyl ester in rats. Brain Research Bulletin [Internet]. 2020;155:166–73. Available from:


Rock EM, Ayoub SM, Limebeer CL, Gene A, Wills KL, DeVuono MV, et al. Acute naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal elicits nausea-like somatic behaviors in rats in a manner suppressed by N-oleoylglycine. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2020;237(2):375–84. Available from:


Pacher P, Kogan NM, Mechoulam R. Beyond THC and endocannabinoids. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology [Internet]. 2020;60:637–59. Available from:


Feldman M, Sionov R, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Ginsburg I, Steinberg D. Comparative Evaluation of Combinatory Interaction between Endocannabinoid System Compounds and Poly-L-lysine against Streptococcus mutans Growth and Biofilm Formation. BioMed Research International [Internet]. 2020;2020. Available from:


Bar-Lev Schleider L, Mechoulam R, Saban N, Meiri G, Novack V. Real life Experience of Medical Cannabis Treatment in Autism: Analysis of Safety and Efficacy. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019;9(1). Available from:


Baraghithy S, Smoum R, Attar-Namdar M, Mechoulam R, Bab I, Tam J. Hu-671, a novel oleoyl serine derivative, exhibits enhanced efficacy in reversing ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis and bone marrow adiposity. Molecules [Internet]. 2019;24(20). Available from:


Petrie GN, Wills KL, Piscitelli F, Smoum R, Limebeer CL, Rock EM, et al. Oleoyl glycine: interference with the aversive effects of acute naloxone-precipitated MWD, but not morphine reward, in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2019;236(9):2623–33. Available from:


Friedman L, Smoum R, Feldman M, Mechoulam R, Steinberg D. Does the Endocannabinoid Anandamide Affect Bacterial Quorum Sensing, Vitality, and Motility? Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research [Internet]. 2019;4(2):102–9. Available from:


Magid L, Heymann S, Elgali M, Avram L, Cohen Y, Liraz-Zaltsman S, et al. Role of CB2 Receptor in the Recovery of Mice after Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma [Internet]. 2019;36(11):1836–46. Available from:


Donvito G, Piscitelli F, Muldoon P, Jackson A, Vitale RM, D’Aniello E, et al. N-Oleoyl-glycine reduces nicotine reward and withdrawal in mice. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 2019;148:320–31. Available from:


Shbiro L, Hen-Shoval D, Hazut N, Rapps K, Dar S, Zalsman G, et al. Effects of cannabidiol in males and females in two different rat models of depression. Physiology and Behavior [Internet]. 2019;201:59–63. Available from:


Stark T, Ruda-Kucerova J, Iannotti FA, D’Addario C, Di Marco R, Pekarik V, et al. Peripubertal cannabidiol treatment rescues behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in the MAM model of schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 2019;146:212–21. Available from:


Murillo-Rodríguez E, Millán-Aldaco D, Palomero-Rivero M, Morales-Lara D, Mechoulam R, Drucker-Colín R. Cannabidiol partially blocks the excessive sleepiness in hypocretin-deficient rats: Preliminary data. CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets [Internet]. 2019;18(9):705–12. Available from:


Linares IM, Zuardi AW, Pereira LC, Queiroz RH, Mechoulam R, Guimarães FS, et al. Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria [Internet]. 2019;41(1):9–14. Available from:


Baraghithy S, Smoum R, Drori A, Hadar R, Gammal A, Hirsch S, et al. Magel2 Modulates Bone Remodeling and Mass in Prader-Willi Syndrome by Affecting Oleoyl Serine Levels and Activity. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research [Internet]. 2019;34(1):93–105. Available from:


Feldman M, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Steinberg D. Antimicrobial potential of endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid-like compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2018;8(1). Available from:


Chiurchiù V, Leuti A, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Maccarrone M. Bioactive lipids ALIAmides differentially modulate inflammatory responses of distinct subsets of primary human T lymphocytes. FASEB Journal [Internet]. 2018;32(10):5716–23. Available from:


Hen-Shoval D, Amar S, Shbiro L, Smoum R, Haj CG, Mechoulam R, et al. Acute oral cannabidiolic acid methyl ester reduces depression-like behavior in two genetic animal models of depression. Behavioural Brain Research [Internet]. 2018;351:1–3. Available from:


Bar-Lev Schleider L, Mechoulam R, Lederman V, Hilou M, Lencovsky O, Betzalel O, et al. Prospective analysis of safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in large unselected population of patients with cancer. European Journal of Internal Medicine [Internet]. 2018;49:37–43. Available from:


Abuhasira R, Schleider LBL, Mechoulam R, Novack V. Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly. European Journal of Internal Medicine [Internet]. 2018;49:44–50. Available from:


Pertwee RG, Rock EM, Guenther K, Limebeer CL, Stevenson LA, Haj C, et al. Cannabidiolic acid methyl ester, a stable synthetic analogue of cannabidiolic acid, can produce 5-HT1A receptor-mediated suppression of nausea and anxiety in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2018;175(1):100–12. Available from:


Večeřa J, Bártová E, Krejčí J, Legartová S, Komůrková D, Rudá-Kučerová J, et al. HDAC1 and HDAC3 underlie dynamic H3K9 acetylation during embryonic neurogenesis and in schizophrenia-like animals. Journal of Cellular Physiology [Internet]. 2018;233(1):530–48. Available from:


Wang Y, Mukhopadhyay P, Cao Z, Wang H, Feng D, Haskó G, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates alcohol-induced liver steatosis, metabolic dysregulation, inflammation and neutrophil-mediated injury. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2017;7(1). Available from:


Silva NR, Gomes FV, Fonseca MD, Mechoulam R, Breuer A, Cunha TM, et al. Antinociceptive effects of HUF-101, a fluorinated cannabidiol derivative. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry [Internet]. 2017;79:369–77. Available from:


Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Petrie GN, Williams LA, Mechoulam R, Parker LA. Effect of prior foot shock stress and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, and cannabidiol on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark emergence test in rats. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2017;234(14):2207–17. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Foreword [Internet]. Cannabis sativa L. - Botany and Biotechnology. 2017. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Cannabis and epilepsy. Epilepsy and Behavior [Internet]. 2017;70:278–9. Available from:


Rock EM, Boulet N, Limebeer CL, Mechoulam R, Parker LA. Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonism reduces lithium chloride-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2016;786:94–9. Available from:


Breuer A, Haj CG, Fogaça MV, Gomes FV, Silva NR, Pedrazzi JF, et al. Fluorinated cannabidiol derivatives: Enhancement of activity in mice models predictive of anxiolytic, antidepressant and antipsychotic effects. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2016;11(7). Available from:


Juknat A, Kozela E, Kaushansky N, Mechoulam R, Vogel Z. Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol - Studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology [Internet]. 2016;27(3):289–96. Available from:


Mann A, Cohen-Yeshurun A, Trembovler V, Mechoulam R, Shohami E. Are the endocannabinoid-like compounds N-acyl aminoacids neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury? Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology [Internet]. 2016;27(3):209–16. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Cannabis - The Israeli perspective. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology [Internet]. 2016;27(3):181–7. Available from:


Maslov LN, Khaliulin I, Zhang Y, Krylatov AV, Naryzhnaya NV, Mechoulam R, et al. Prospects for Creation of Cardioprotective Drugs Based on Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics [Internet]. 2016;21(3):262–72. Available from:


Shoval G, Shbiro L, Hershkovitz L, Hazut N, Zalsman G, Mechoulam R, et al. Prohedonic effect of cannabidiol in a rat model of depression. Neuropsychobiology [Internet]. 2016;73(2):123–9. Available from:


Lee WS, Erdelyi K, Matyas C, Mukhopadhyay P, Varga ZV, Liaudet L, et al. Cannabidiol limits T cell–mediated chronic autoimmune myocarditis: Implications to autoimmune disorders and organ transplantation. Molecular Medicine [Internet]. 2016;22:136–46. Available from:


Fisher T, Golan H, Schiby G, Prichen S, Smoum R, Moshe I, et al. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma. Current Oncology [Internet]. 2016;23:S15–22. Available from:


Kozela E, Haj C, Hanuš L, Chourasia M, Shurki A, Juknat A, et al. HU-446 and HU-465, Derivatives of the Non-psychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol, Decrease the Activation of Encephalitogenic T Cells. Chemical Biology and Drug Design [Internet]. 2016;87(1):143–53. Available from:


Kogan NM, Melamed E, Wasserman E, Raphael B, Breuer A, Stok KS, et al. Cannabidiol, a major non-psychotropic cannabis constituent enhances fracture healing and stimulates lysyl hydroxylase activity in osteoblasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research [Internet]. 2015;30(10):1905–13. Available from:


Haj CG, Sumariwalla PF, Hanuš L, Kogan NM, Yektin Z, Mechoulam R, et al. HU-444, a novel, potent anti-inflammatory, nonpsychotropic cannabinoid. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 2015;355(1):66–75. Available from:


Yeshurun M, Shpilberg O, Herscovici C, Shargian L, Dreyer J, Peck A, et al. Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Results of a Phase II Study. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation [Internet]. 2015;21(10):1770–5. Available from:


Soni D, Smoum R, Breuer A, Mechoulam R, Steinberg D. Effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 on quorum sensing and on the production of quorum sensing-mediated virulence factors by Vibrio harveyi. BMC Microbiology [Internet]. 2015;15(1). Available from:


Smoum R, Baraghithy S, Chourasia M, Breuer A, Mussai N, Attar-Namdar M, et al. CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist enantiomers HU-433 and HU-308: An inverse relationship between binding affinity and biological potency. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 2015;112(28):8774–9. Available from:


Mann A, Smoum R, Trembovler V, Alexandrovich A, Breuer A, Mechoulam R, et al. Palmitoyl Serine: An Endogenous Neuroprotective Endocannabinoid-Like Entity After Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology [Internet]. 2015;10(2):356–63. Available from:


Maccarrone M, Bab I, Bíró T, Cabral GA, Dey SK, Di Marzo V, et al. Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences [Internet]. 2015;36(5):277–96. Available from:


Sticht MA, Jacklin DL, Mechoulam R, Parker LA, Winters BD. Intraperirhinal cortex administration of the synthetic cannabinoid, HU210, disrupts object recognition memory in rats. NeuroReport [Internet]. 2015;26(5):258–62. Available from:


Hao E, Mukhopadhyay P, Cao Z, Erdélyi K, Holovac E, Liaudet L, et al. Cannabidiol protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by modulating mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Molecular Medicine [Internet]. 2015;21:38–45. Available from:


Mechoulam R. The Endocannabinoid System: A Look Back and Ahead. Handbook of experimental pharmacology [Internet]. 2015;231:vii–ix. Available from:


Di Marzo V, Piscitelli F, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology [Internet]. 2015;203:75–104. Available from:


Wasserman E, Tam J, Mechoulam R, Zimmer A, Maor G, Bab I. CB1 cannabinoid receptors mediate endochondral skeletal growth attenuation by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2015;1335(1):110–9. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hanuš LO, Pertwee R, Howlett AC. Early phytocannabinoid chemistry to endocannabinoids and beyond. Nature Reviews Neuroscience [Internet]. 2014;15(11):757–64. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Looking ahead after 50 years of research on cannabinoids [Internet]. Cannabinoids. 2014. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Foreword [Internet]. The Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics: From Bench to Bedside. 2014. Available from:


Hanuš L, Shohami E, Bab I, Mechoulam R. N-Acyl amino acids and their impact on biological processes. BioFactors [Internet]. 2014;40(4):381–8. Available from:


Roitman P, Mechoulam R, Cooper-Kazaz R, Shalev A. Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Clinical Drug Investigation [Internet]. 2014;34(8):587–91. Available from:


Kaminitz A, Barzilay R, Segal H, Taler M, Offen D, Gil-Ad I, et al. Dominant negative DISC1 mutant mice display specific social behaviour deficits and aberration in BDNF and cannabinoid receptor expression. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry [Internet]. 2014;15(1):76–82. Available from:


Maslov LN, Lishmanov YuB, Oeltgen P, Pei JM, Krylatov AV, Barzakh EI, et al. Effects of preconditioning on coronary perfusion in cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology [Internet]. 2013;43(9):1039–48. Available from:


Maslov LN, Headrick JP, Mechoulam R, Krylatov AV, Lishmanov AYu, Barzakh EI, et al. The role of receptor transactivation in the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning and postconditioning. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology [Internet]. 2013;43(9):1015–22. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Shohami E. HU-211: A cannabinoid neuroprotective agent [Internet]. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. 2013. Available from:


Cohen-Yeshurun A, Willner D, Trembovler V, Alexandrovich A, Mechoulam R, Shohami E, et al. N-arachidonoyl-L-serine (AraS) possesses proneurogenic properties in vitro and in vivo after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism [Internet]. 2013;33(8):1242–50. Available from:


Fernández-Ruiz J, Sagredo O, Pazos MR, García C, Pertwee R, Mechoulam R, et al. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology [Internet]. 2013;75(2):323–33. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Parker L. Towards a better cannabis drug. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2013;170(7):1363–4. Available from:


Espejo-Porras F, Fernández-Ruiz J, Pertwee RG, Mechoulam R, García C. Motor effects of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol that are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 2013;75:155–63. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Parker LA. The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Annual Review of Psychology [Internet]. 2013;64:21–47. Available from:


Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Mechoulam R, Parker LA. The anti-nausea effects of CB1 agonists are mediated by an action at the visceral insular cortex. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2012;167(5):1126–36. Available from:


Mecha M, Torrao AS, Mestre L, Carrillo-Salinas FJ, Mechoulam R, Guaza C. Cannabidiol protects oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from inflammation-induced apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell Death and Disease [Internet]. 2012;3(6):e331. Available from:


Sticht MA, Long JZ, Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Mechoulam R, Cravatt BF, et al. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase attenuates vomiting in Suncus murinus and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol attenuates nausea in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2012;165(8):2425–35. Available from:


Horváth B, Magid L, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, Rajesh M, Park O, et al. A new cannabinoid CB 2receptor agonist HU-910 attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2012;165(8):2462–78. Available from:


Rock EM, Bolognini D, Limebeer CL, Cascio MG, Anavi-Goffer S, Fletcher PJ, et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT 1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2012;165(8):2620–34. Available from:


Maslov LN, Headrick JP, Mechoulam R, Krylatov AV, Lishmanov AI, Barzakh EI, et al. [Role of receptor transactivation in the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning and postconditioning]. Rossiǐskii fiziologicheskiǐ zhurnal imeni IM Sechenova / Rossiǐskaia akademiia nauk [Internet]. 2012;98(3):305–17. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Cannabis - A valuable drug that deserves better treatment. Mayo Clinic Proceedings [Internet]. 2012;87(2):107–9. Available from:


Brown I, Wahle KWJ, Cascio MG, Smoum-Jaouni R, Mechoulam R, Pertwee RG, et al. Omega-3 N-acylethanolamines are endogenously synthesised from omega-3 fatty acids in different human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids [Internet]. 2011;85(6):305–10. Available from:


Shohami E, Cohen-Yeshurun A, Magid L, Algali M, Mechoulam R. Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2011;163(7):1402–10. Available from:


Fernández-Ruiz J, Moreno-Martet M, Rodríguez-Cueto C, Palomo-Garo C, Gõmez-Cañas M, Valdeolivas S, et al. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2011;163(7):1365–78. Available from:


Bab I, Smoum R, Bradshaw H, Mechoulam R. Skeletal lipidomics: Regulation of bone metabolism by fatty acid amide family. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2011;163(7):1441–6. Available from:


Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Mechoulam R, Piomelli D, Parker LA. Erratum: The effect of cannabidiol and URB597 on conditioned gaping (a model of nausea) elicited by a lithium-paired context in the rat (Psychopharmacology DOI: 10.1007/s00213-007-0970-1). Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2011;216(1):149. Available from:


Rock EM, Goodwin JM, Limebeer CL, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Mechoulam R, et al. Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: Effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2011;215(3):505–12. Available from:


Martín-Moreno AM, Reigada D, Ramírez BG, Mechoulam R, Innamorato N, Cuadrado A, et al. Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids reduce microglial activation in vitro and in vivo: Relevance to alzheimer’s disease. Molecular Pharmacology [Internet]. 2011;79(6):964–73. Available from:


Lourbopoulos A, Grigoriadis N, Lagoudaki R, Touloumi O, Polyzoidou E, Mavromatis I, et al. Administration of 2-arachidonoylglycerol ameliorates both acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain Research [Internet]. 2011;1390:126–41. Available from:


Mukhopadhyay P, Rajesh M, Horváth B, Bátkai S, Park O, Tanchian G, et al. Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death. Free Radical Biology and Medicine [Internet]. 2011;50(10):1368–81. Available from:


Avraham Y, Grigoriadis NC, Poutahidis T, Vorobiev L, Magen I, Ilan Y, et al. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2011;162(7):1650–8. Available from:


Pacher P, Mechoulam R. Is lipid signaling through cannabinoid 2 receptors part of a protective system? Progress in Lipid Research [Internet]. 2011;50(2):193–211. Available from:


Murillo-Rodríguez E, Palomero-Rivero M, Millán-Aldaco D, Mechoulam R, Drucker-Colín R. Effects on sleep and dopamine levels of microdialysis perfusion of cannabidiol into the lateral hypothalamus of rats. Life Sciences [Internet]. 2011;88(11–12):504–11. Available from:


Ofek O, Attar-Namdar M, Kram V, Dvir-Ginzberg M, Mechoulam R, Zimmer A, et al. CB2 cannabinoid receptor targets mitogenic Gi protein-cyclin D1 axis in osteoblasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research [Internet]. 2011;26(2):308–16. Available from:


Cohen-Yeshurun A, Trembovler V, Alexandrovich A, Ryberg E, Greasley PJ, Mechoulam R, et al. N-arachidonoyl-L-serine is neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury by reducing apoptosis. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism [Internet]. 2011;31(8):1768–77. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hanus L. Other cannabinoids [Internet]. Marijuana and Madness: Second Edition. 2011. Available from:


Di Marzo V, Piscitelli F, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology [Internet]. 2011;203:75–104. Available from:


Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Btkai S, Patel V, Saito K, Matsumoto S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology [Internet]. 2010;56(25):2115–25. Available from:


Pertwee RG, Howlett AC, Abood ME, Alexander SPH, Di Marzo V, Elphick MR, et al. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: Beyond CB1 and CB2. Pharmacological Reviews [Internet]. 2010;62(4):588–631. Available from:


Smoum R, Bar A, Tan B, Milman G, Attar-Namdar M, Ofek O, et al. Oleoyl serine, an endogenous N-acyl amide, modulates bone remodeling and mass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 2010;107(41):17710–5. Available from:


Pope C, Mechoulam R, Parsons L. Endocannabinoid signaling in neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. NeuroToxicology [Internet]. 2010;31(5):562–71. Available from:


Brown I, Cascio MG, Wahle KW, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Ross RA, et al. Cannabinoid receptor-dependent and -independent anti-proliferative effects of omega-3 ethanolamides in androgen receptor-positive and -negative prostate cancer cell lines. Carcinogenesis [Internet]. 2010;31(9):1584–91. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Endocannabinoids and psychiatric disorders: The road ahead [Endocanabinoides e transtornos psiquiátricos: A estrada à frente]. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria [Internet]. 2010;32(SUPPL. 1):S5–6. Available from:


Hanuš LO, Mechoulam R. Novel natural and synthetic ligands of the endocannabinoid system. Current Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 2010;17(14):1341–59. Available from:


Magen I, Avraham Y, Ackerman Z, Vorobiev L, Mechoulam R, Berry EM. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT 1A receptor activation. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2010;159(4):950–7. Available from:


Moussaieff A, Mechoulam R. Boswellia resin: From religious ceremonies to medical uses; a review of in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology [Internet]. 2009;61(10):1281–93. Available from:


Avraham Y, Grigoriadis NC, Magen I, Poutahidis T, Vorobiav L, Zolotarev O, et al. Capsaicin affects brain function in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2009;158(3):896–906. Available from:


Magen I, Avraham Y, Ackerman Z, Vorobiev L, Mechoulam R, Berry EM. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation. Journal of Hepatology [Internet]. 2009;51(3):528–34. Available from:


Sagredo O, González S, Aroyo I, Pazos MR, Benito C, Lastres-Becker I, et al. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: Relevance for Huntington’s disease. GLIA [Internet]. 2009;57(11):1154–67. Available from:


Avraham Y, Zolotarev O, Grigoriadis NC, Pautahidis T, Magen I, Vorobiav L, et al. Cannabinoids and capsaicin improve liver function following thioacetamide-induced acute injury in mice (American Journal of Gastroenterology (2009) 103, (3047-3056) DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.02155.x). American Journal of Gastroenterology [Internet]. 2009;104(3):801. Available from:


Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences [Internet]. 2009;30(10):515–27. Available from:


Murillo-Rodríguez E, Millán-Aldaco D, Palomero-Rivero M, Mechoulam R, Drucker-Colín R. The Nonpsychoactive Cannabis Constituent Cannabidiol Is a Wake-Inducing Agent. Behavioral Neuroscience [Internet]. 2008;122(6):1378–82. Available from:


Patinkin D, Milman G, Breuer A, Fride E, Mechoulam R. Endocannabinoids as positive or negative factors in hematopoietic cell migration and differentiation. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2008;595(1–3):1–6. Available from:


Galanti G, Fisher T, Kventsel I, Shoham J, Gallily R, Mechoulam R, et al. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression by downregulation of E2F1 in human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Acta Oncologica [Internet]. 2008;47(6):1062–70. Available from:


Magen I, Avraham Y, Berry E, Mechoulam R. Endocannabinoids in liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Current Pharmaceutical Design [Internet]. 2008;14(23):2362–9. Available from:


Moussaieff A, Rimmerman N, Bregman T, Straiker A, Felder CC, Shoham S, et al. Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain. FASEB Journal [Internet]. 2008;22(8):3024–34. Available from:


Moussaieff A, Shein NA, Tsenter J, Grigoriadis S, Simeonidou C, Alexandrovich AG, et al. Incensole acetate: A novel neuroprotective agent isolated from Boswellia carterii. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism [Internet]. 2008;28(7):1341–52. Available from:


Weinstein A, Brickner O, Lerman H, Greemland M, Bloch M, Lester H, et al. A study investigating the acute dose-response effects of 13 mg and 17 mg Δ 9- tetrahydrocannabinol on cognitive-motor skills, subjective and autonomic measures in regular users of marijuana. Journal of Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2008;22(4):441–51. Available from:


Palazuelos J, Davoust N, Julien B, Hatterer E, Aguado T, Mechoulam R, et al. The CB2 cannabinoid receptor controls myeloid progenitor trafficking: Involvement in the pathogenesis of an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Biological Chemistry [Internet]. 2008;283(19):13320–4. Available from:


Ronen A, Gershon P, Drobiner H, Rabinovich A, Bar-Hamburger R, Mechoulam R, et al. Effects of THC on driving performance, physiological state and subjective feelings relative to alcohol. Accident Analysis and Prevention [Internet]. 2008;40(3):926–34. Available from:


Bermúdez-Silva FJ, Suárez J, Baixeras E, Cobo N, Bautista D, Cuesta-Muñoz AL, et al. Presence of functional cannabinoid receptors in human endocrine pancreas. Diabetologia [Internet]. 2008;51(3):476–87. Available from:


McHugh D, Tanner C, Mechoulam R, Pertwee RG, Ross RA. Inhibition of human neutrophil chemotaxis by endogenous cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids: Evidence for a site distinct from CB1 and CB 2. Molecular Pharmacology [Internet]. 2008;73(2):441–50. Available from:


Avraham Y, Zolotarev O, Grigoriadis NC, Pautahidis T, Magen I, Vorobiav L, et al. Cannabinoids and capsaicin improve liver function following thioacetamide-induced acute injury in mice. American Journal of Gastroenterology [Internet]. 2008;103(12):3047–56. Available from:


Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Mechoulam R, Piomelli D, Parker LA. The effect of cannabidiol and URB597 on conditioned gaping (a model of nausea) elicited by a lithium-paired context in the rat. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2008;196(3):389–95. Available from:


Weinstein A, Brickner O, Lerman H, Greemland M, Bloch M, Lester H, et al. Brain imaging study of the acute effects of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on attention and motor coordination in regular users of marijuana. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2008;196(1):119–31. Available from:


Tam J, Trembovler V, Di Marzo V, Petrosino S, Leo G, Alexandrovich A, et al. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor regulates bone formation by modulating adrenergic signaling. FASEB Journal [Internet]. 2008;22(1):285–94. Available from:


Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, Slavin S, Raz I, Mechoulam R, et al. Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 2008;54(1):244–9. Available from:


Kogan NM, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoids in health and disease. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience [Internet]. 2007;9(4):413–30. Available from:


Durst R, Danenberg H, Gallily R, Mechoulam R, Meir K, Grad E, et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology [Internet]. 2007;293(6):H3602–7. Available from:


Moussaieff A, Shohami E, Kashman Y, Fride E, Schmitz ML, Renner F, et al. Incensole acetate, a novel anti-inflammatory compound isolated from Boswellia resin, inhibits nuclear factor-κB activation. Molecular Pharmacology [Internet]. 2007;72(6):1657–64. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Endocannabinoids: Functional roles and therapeutic opportunities [Gli endocannabinoidi: Ruoli funzionali e opportunità terapeutiche]. Giornale di Neuropsicofarmacologia [Internet]. 2007;29(4):99–101. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Peters M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Hanuš LO. Cannabidiol - Recent advances. Chemistry and Biodiversity [Internet]. 2007;4(8):1678–92. Available from:


Sagredo O, Ramos JA, Decio A, Mechoulam R, Fernández-Ruiz J. Cannabidiol reduced the striatal atrophy caused 3-nitropropionic acid in vivo by mechanisms independent of the activation of cannabinoid, vanilloid TRPV1 and adenosine A2A receptors. European Journal of Neuroscience [Internet]. 2007;26(4):843–51. Available from:


Dagon Y, Avraham Y, Ilan Y, Mechoulam R, Berry EM. Cannabinoids ameliorate cerebral dysfunction following liver failure via AMP-activated protein kinase. FASEB Journal [Internet]. 2007;21(10):2431–41. Available from:


Kogan NM, Schlesinger M, Peters M, Marincheva G, Beeri R, Mechoulam R. A cannabinoid anticancer quinone, HU-331, is more potent and less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin: A comparative in vivo study. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 2007;322(2):646–53. Available from:


Dagon Y, Avraham Y, Link G, Zolotarev O, Mechoulam R, Berry EM. The synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 attenuates neural damage in diabetic mice and hyperglycemic pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Neurobiology of Disease [Internet]. 2007;27(2):174–81. Available from:


Karsak M, Gaffal E, Date R, Wang-Eckhardt L, Rehnelt J, Petrosino S, et al. Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system. Science [Internet]. 2007;316(5830):1494–7. Available from:


García-Arencibia M, González S, de Lago E, Ramos JA, Mechoulam R, Fernández-Ruiz J. Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: Importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties. Brain Research [Internet]. 2007;1134(1):162–70. Available from:


Hanuš L, Mechoulam R. Plant and brain Cannabinoids: The chemistry of major new players in physiology [Internet]. Selected Topics in the Chemistry of Natural Products. 2007. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Shohami E. Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury. Molecular Neurobiology [Internet]. 2007;36(1):68–74. Available from:


Kogan NM, Schlesinger M, Priel E, Rabinowitz R, Berenshtein E, Chevion M, et al. HU-331, a novel cannabinoid-based anticancer topoisomerase II inhibitor. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics [Internet]. 2007;6(1):173–83. Available from:


Mccarron RM, Chen Y, Tomori T, Strasser A, Mechoulam R, Shohami E, et al. Endothelial-mediated regulation of cerebral microcirculation. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology [Internet]. 2006;57(SUPPL. 11):133–44. Available from:


Palazuelos J, Aguado T, Egia A, Mechoulam R, Guzmán M, Galve-Roperh I. Non-psychoactive CB2 cannabinoid agonists stimulate neural progenitor proliferation. FASEB Journal [Internet]. 2006;20(13):E1773–9. Available from:


Murillo-Rodríguez E, Millán-Aldaco D, Palomero-Rivero M, Mechoulam R, Drucker-Colín R. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats. FEBS Letters [Internet]. 2006;580(18):4337–45. Available from:


Kogan NM, Blázquez C, Álvarez L, Gallily R, Schlesinger M, Guzmán M, et al. A cannabinoid quinone inhibits angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial cells. Molecular Pharmacology [Internet]. 2006;70(1):51–9. Available from:


Panikashvili D, Shein NA, Mechoulam R, Trembovler V, Kohen R, Alexandrovich A, et al. The endocannabinoid 2-AG protects the blood-brain barrier after closed head injury and inhibits mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Neurobiology of Disease [Internet]. 2006;22(2):257–64. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Berry EM, Avraham Y, Di Marzo V, Fride E. Endocannabinoids, feeding and suckling - From our perspective. International Journal of Obesity [Internet]. 2006;30(SUPPL. 1):S24–8. Available from:


Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, Har-Noy M, Mechoulam R, Slavin S, et al. Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Autoimmunity [Internet]. 2006;39(2):143–51. Available from:


Milman G, Maor Y, Abu-Lafi S, Horowitz M, Gallily R, Batkai S, et al. N-arachidonoyl L-serine, an endocannabinoid-like brain constituent with vasodilatory properties. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 2006;103(7):2428–33. Available from:


Parker LA, Kwiatkowska M, Mechoulam R. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, but not ondansetron, interfere with conditioned retching reactions elicited by a lithium-paired context in Suncus murinus: An animal model of anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Physiology and Behavior [Internet]. 2006;87(1):66–71. Available from:


Ofek O, Karsak M, Leclerc N, Fogel M, Frenkel B, Wright K, et al. Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 2006;103(3):696–701. Available from:


Tam J, Ofek O, Fride E, Ledent C, Gabet Y, M̈uller R, et al. Involvement of neuronal cannabinoid receptor CB1 in regulation of bone mass and bone remodeling. Molecular Pharmacology [Internet]. 2006;70(3):786–92. Available from:


Kogan NM, Mechoulam R. The chemistry of endocannabinoids. Journal of endocrinological investigation [Internet]. 2006;29(3 Suppl):3–14. Available from:


Avraham Y, Israeli E, Gabbay E, Okun A, Zolotarev O, Silberman I, et al. Endocannabinoids affect neurological and cognitive function in thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy in mice. Neurobiology of Disease [Internet]. 2006;21(1):237–45. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Deutsch DG. Toward an anandamide transporter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 2005;102(49):17541–2. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Preface. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology [Internet]. 2005;168:VII–VIII. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Plant cannabinoids: A neglected pharmacological treasure trove. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2005;146(7):913–5. Available from:


Moussaieff A, Fride E, Amar Z, Lev E, Steinberg D, Gallily R, et al. The Jerusalem Balsam: From the Franciscan Monastery in the old city of Jerusalem to Martindale 33. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [Internet]. 2005;101(1–3):16–26. Available from:


Unzicker C, Erberich H, Moldrich G, Woldt H, Bulla J, Mechoulam R, et al. Hippocampal cannabinoid-1 receptor upregulation upon endothelin-B receptor deficiency: A neuroprotective substitution effect? Neurochemical Research [Internet]. 2005;30(10):1305–9. Available from:


Fride E, Suris R, Weidenfeld J, Mechoulam R. Differential response to acute and repeated stress in cannabinoid CB 1 receptor knockout newborn and adult mice. Behavioural Pharmacology [Internet]. 2005;16(5–6):431–40. Available from:


Panikashvili D, Mechoulam R, Beni SM, Alexandrovich A, Shohami E. CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in neuroprotection via NF-κB inhibition. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism [Internet]. 2005;25(4):477–84. Available from:


Hanuš LO, Tchilibon S, Ponde DE, Breuer A, Fride E, Mechoulam R. Enantiomeric cannabidiol derivatives: Synthesis and binding to cannabinoid receptors. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry [Internet]. 2005;3(6):1116–23. Available from:


Avraham Y, Menachem AB, Okun A, Zlotarav O, Abel N, Mechoulam R, et al. Effects of the endocannabinoid noladin ether on body weight, food consumption, locomotor activity, and cognitive index in mice. Brain Research Bulletin [Internet]. 2005;65(2):117–23. Available from:


Sarne Y, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoids: Between neuroprotection and neurotoxicity. Current Drug Targets: CNS and Neurological Disorders [Internet]. 2005;4(6):677–84. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Sumariwalla PF, Feldmann M, Gallily R. Cannabinoids in models of chronic inflammatory conditions. Phytochemistry Reviews [Internet]. 2005;4(1):11–8. Available from:


Maccarrone M, Fride E, Bisogno T, Bari M, Cascio MG, Battista N, et al. Up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system in the uterus of leptin knockout (ob/ob) mice and implications for fertility. Molecular Human Reproduction [Internet]. 2005;11(1):21–8. Available from:


Pertwee RG, Thomas A, Stevenson LA, Maor Y, Mechoulam R. Evidence that (-)-7-hydroxy-4′-dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol activates a non-CB1, non-CB2, non-TRPV1 target in the mouse vas deferens. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 2005;48(8 SPEC. ISS.):1139–46. Available from:


Makriyannis A, Mechoulam R, Piomelli D. Therapeutic opportunities through modulation of the endocannabinoid system. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 2005;48(8 SPEC. ISS.):1068–71. Available from:


Lastres-Becker I, Molina-Holgado F, Ramos JA, Mechoulam R, Fernández-Ruiz J. Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: Relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiology of Disease [Internet]. 2005;19(1–2):96–107. Available from:


Fride E, Feigin C, Ponde DE, Breuer A, Hanuš L, Arshavsky N, et al. (+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2004;506(2):179–88. Available from:


Golech SA, McCarron RM, Chen Y, Bembry J, Lenz F, Mechoulam R, et al. Human brain endothelium: Coexpression and function of vanilloid and endocannabinoid receptors. Molecular Brain Research [Internet]. 2004;132(1):87–92. Available from:


Navab R, Aingorn H, Fallavollita L, Sallon S, Mechoulam R, Ginsburg I, et al. PADMA-28, a traditional Tibetan herbal preparation, blocks cellular responses to bFGF and IGF-I. Inflammopharmacology [Internet]. 2004;12(4):373–89. Available from:


Parker LA, Burton P, Sorge RE, Yakiwchuk C, Mechoulam R. Effect of low doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on the extinction of cocaine-induced and amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference learning in rats. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2004;175(3):360–6. Available from:


Kogan NM, Rabinowitz R, Levi P, Gibson D, Sandor P, Schlesinger M, et al. Synthesis and antitumor activity of quinonoid derivatives of cannabinoids. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 2004;47(15):3800–6. Available from:


Sumariwalla PF, Gallily R, Tchilibon S, Fride E, Mechoulam R, Feldmann M. A Novel Synthetic, Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Acid (HU-320) with Antiinflammatory Properties in Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism [Internet]. 2004;50(3):985–98. Available from:


Mechoulam R. The promise of advances in the field of endocannabinoids. Neuroendocrinology letters [Internet]. 2004;25(1–2):11–2. Available from:


Kwiatkowska M, Parker LA, Burton P, Mechoulam R. A comparative analysis of the potential of cannabinoids and ondansetron to suppress cisplatin-induced emesis in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew). Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2004;174(2):254–9. Available from:


Parker LA, Kwiatkowska M, Burton P, Mechoulam R. Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew). Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2004;171(2):156–61. Available from:


Burstein S, Zurier RB, Sumariwalla PF, Feldmann M, Gallily R, Mechoulam R, et al. Pain reduction and lack of psychotropic effects with ajulemic acid: Comment on the article by Sumariwalla et al [4] (multiple letters). Arthritis and Rheumatism [Internet]. 2004;50(12):4078–9. Available from:


Lodzki M, Godin B, Rakou L, Mechoulam R, Gallily R, Touitou E. Cannabidiol - Transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model. Journal of Controlled Release [Internet]. 2003;93(3):377–87. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Lichtman AH. Stout guards of the central nervous system. Science [Internet]. 2003;302(5642):65+67. Available from:


Gallily R, Even-Chen T, Katzavian G, Lehmann D, Dagan A, Mechoulam R. γ-Irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2003;44(10):1767–73. Available from:


Hanuš L, Avraham Y, Ben-Shushan D, Zolotarev O, Berry EM, Mechoulam R. Short-term fasting and prolonged semistarvation have opposite effects on 2-AG levels in mouse brain. Brain Research [Internet]. 2003;983(1–2):144–51. Available from:


Gilgun-Sherki Y, Melamed E, Mechoulam R, Offen D. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, HU-210, reduces levodopa-induced rotations in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Pharmacology and Toxicology [Internet]. 2003;93(2):66–70. Available from:


Leker RR, Gai N, Mechoulam R, Ovadia H. Drug-induced hypothermia reduces ischemic damage: Effects of the cannabinoid HU-210. Stroke [Internet]. 2003;34(8):2000–6. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Parker L. Cannabis and alcohol - A close friendship. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences [Internet]. 2003;24(6):266–8. Available from:


Fride E, Foox A, Rosenberg E, Faigenboim M, Cohen V, Barda L, et al. Milk intake and survival in newborn cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice: Evidence for a “CB3” receptor. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2003;461(1):27–34. Available from:


Spatz M, McCarron RM, Shohami E, Panikashvili D, Chen Y, Golcch S, et al. Antioxidant properties of the vasoactive endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplementum [Internet]. 2003;(86):271–5. Available from:


Parker LA, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoid Agonists and Antagonists Modulate Lithium-induced Conditioned Gaping in Rats. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science [Internet]. 2003;38(2):133–45. Available from:


Parker LA, Mechoulam R, Schlievert C, Abbott L, Fudge ML, Burton P. Effects of cannabinoids on lithium-induced conditioned rejection reactions in a rat model of nausea. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 2003;166(2):156–62. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hanuš L. Cannabidiol: An overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects. Part I: Chemical aspects. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids [Internet]. 2002;121(1–2):35–43. Available from:


Laine K, Järvinen K, Mechoulam R, Breuer A, Järvinen T. Comparison of the enzymatic stability and intraocular pressure effects of 2-arachidonylglycerol and noladin ether, a novel putative endocannabinoid. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science [Internet]. 2002;43(10):3216–22. Available from:


Krylatov AV, Uzhachenko RV, Maslov LN, Bernatskaya NA, Makriyannis A, Mechoulam R, et al. Endogenous cannabinoids improve myocardial resistance to arrhythmogenic effects of coronary occlusion and reperfusion: A possible mechanism. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine [Internet]. 2002;133(2):122–4. Available from:


Ugdyzhekova DS, Krylatov AV, Bernatskaya NA, Maslov LN, Mechoulam R, Pertwee RG. Activation of cannabinoid receptors decreases the area of ischemic myocardial necrosis. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine [Internet]. 2002;133(2):125–6. Available from:


Howlett AC, Barth F, Bonner TI, Cabral G, Casellas P, Devane WA, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. XXVII. Classification of cannabinoid receptors. Pharmacological Reviews [Internet]. 2002;54(2):161–202. Available from:


Parker LA, Mechoulam R, Schlievert C. Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis and its synthetic dimethylheptyl homolog suppress nausea in an experimental model with rats. NeuroReport [Internet]. 2002;13(5):567–70. Available from:


Fezza F, Bisogno T, Minassi A, Appendino G, Mechoulam R, Di Marzo V. Noladin ether, a putative novel endocannabinoid: Inactivation mechanisms and a sensitive method for its quantification in rat tissues. FEBS Letters [Internet]. 2002;513(2–3):294–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Spatz M, Shohami E. Endocannabinoids and neuroprotection. Science’s STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment [Internet]. 2002;2002(129):RE5. Available from:


Berry EM, Mechoulam R. Tetrahydrocannabinol and endocannabinoids in feeding and appetite. Pharmacology and Therapeutics [Internet]. 2002;95(2):185–90. Available from:


Krylatov AV, Bernatskaia NA, Maslov LN, Pertwee RG, Mechoulam R, Stefano GB, et al. Increase of the heart arrhythmogenic resistance and decrease of the myocardial necrosis zone during activation of cannabinoid receptors [Povyshenie ustoichivosti serdtsa k aritmogennym vozdeistviiam i umen’shenie zony ishemicheskogo nekroza miokarda pri aktivatsii kannabinoidnykh retseptorov.]. Rossiiskii fiziologicheskii zhurnal imeni IM Sechenova / Rossiiskaia akademiia nauk [Internet]. 2002;88(5):560–7. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Panikashvili D, Shohami E. Cannabinoids and brain injury: Therapeutic implications. Trends in Molecular Medicine [Internet]. 2002;8(2):58–61. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Discovery of endocannabinoids and some random thoughts on their possible roles in neuroprotection and aggression. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids [Internet]. 2002;66(2–3):93–9. Available from:


Panikashvili D, Simeonidou C, Ben-Shabat S, Hanuš L, Breuer A, Mechoulam R, et al. An endogenous cannabinoid (2-AG) is neuroprotective after brain injury. Nature [Internet]. 2001;413(6855):527–31. Available from:


Rubnov S, Kashman Y, Rabinowitz R, Schlesinger M, Mechoulam R. Suppressors of cancer cell proliferation from fig (Ficus carica) resin: Isolation and structure elucidation. Journal of Natural Products [Internet]. 2001;64(7):993–6. Available from:


Fride E, Ginzburg Y, Breuer A, Bisogno T, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R. Critical role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in mouse pup suckling and growth. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2001;419(2–3):207–14. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Fride E. Physiology: A hunger for cannabinoids. Nature [Internet]. 2001;410(6830):763–5. Available from:


Hanus L, Abu-Lafi S, Fride E, Breuer A, Vogel Z, Shalev DE, et al. 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 2001;98(7):3662–5. Available from:


Crozier Willi G, Berger A, Di Marzo V, Bisogno T, De Petrocellis L, Fride E, et al. Lipids in neural function: modulation of behavior by oral administration of endocannabinoids found in foods. Nestlé Nutrition workshop series Clinical & performance programme [Internet]. 2001;5:169–84; discussion 185-187. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hanuš L. The cannabinoids: An overview. Therapeutic implications in vomiting and nausea after cancer chemotherapy, in appetite promotion, in multiple sclerosis and in neuroprotection. Pain Research and Management [Internet]. 2001;6(2):67–73. Available from:


Bisogno T, Hanuš L, De Petrocellis L, Tchilibon S, Ponde DE, Brandi I, et al. Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: Effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2001;134(4):845–52. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hanuš L. A historical overview of chemical research on cannabinoids. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids [Internet]. 2000;108(1–2):1–13. Available from:


Tchilibon S, Mechoulam R. Synthesis of a primary metabolite of cannabidiol. Organic Letters [Internet]. 2000;2(21):3301–3. Available from:


Gallily R, Breuer A, Mechoulam R. 2-Arachidonylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α production in murine macrophages, and in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2000;406(1):R5–7. Available from:


Chen Y, McCarron RM, Ohara Y, Bembry J, Azzam N, Lenz FA, et al. Human brain capillary endothelium: 2-Arachidonoglycerol (endocannabinoid) interacts with endothelin-1. Circulation Research [Internet]. 2000;87(4):323–7. Available from:


Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, Malik AS, Andreakos E, Mechoulam R, et al. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 2000;97(17):9561–6. Available from:


Hao S, Avraham Y, Mechoulam R, Berry EM. Low dose anandamide affects food intake, cognitive function, neurotransmitter and corticosterone levels in diet-restricted mice. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 2000;392(3):147–56. Available from:


Ugdyzhekova DS, Davydova YG, Maimeskulova LA, Mechoulam R. Involvement of central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of heart resistance to arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine [Internet]. 2000;130(11):1087–9. Available from:


Naveh N, Weissman C, Muchtar S, Benita S, Mechoulam R. A submicron emulsion of HU-211, a synthetic cannabinoid, reduces intraocular pressure in rabbits. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology [Internet]. 2000;238(4):334–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Looking back at cannabis research. Current Pharmaceutical Design [Internet]. 2000;6(13):1313–22. Available from:


Shohami E, Mechoulam R. Dexanabinol (HU-211): A nonpsychotropic cannabinoid with neuroprotective properties. Drug Development Research [Internet]. 2000;50(3–4):211–5. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Recent advances in Cannabinoid research [Jungste fortschritte in der Cannabinoid-forschung]. Forschende Komplementarmedizin [Internet]. 1999;6(SUPPL. 3):16–20. Available from:


Hanuš L, Breuer A, Tchilibon S, Shiloah S, Goldenberg D, Horowitz M, et al. HU-308: A specific agonist for CB2, a peripheral cannabinoid receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 1999;96(25):14228–33. Available from:


Martin BR, Mechoulam R, Razdan RK. Discovery and characterization of endogenous cannabinoids. Life Sciences [Internet]. 1999;65(6–7):573–95. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S. From gan-zi-gun-nu to anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol: The ongoing story of cannabis. Natural Product Reports [Internet]. 1999;16(2):131–43. Available from:


Ginsburg I, Sadovnik M, Sallon S, Milo-Goldzweig I, Mechoulam R, Breuer A, et al. PADMA-28, a traditional Tibetan herbal preparation inhibits the respiratory burst in human neutrophils, the killing of epithelial cells by mixtures of oxidants and pro-inflammatory agonists and peroxidation of lipids. Inflammopharmacology [Internet]. 1999;7(1):47–62. Available from:


Mathews WB, Ravert HT, Scheffel U, Finley PA, Mechoulam R, Frost JJ, et al. Synthesis of [11C] HU-304*: A new radioligand for positron emission tomographic studies of cannabinoid receptors. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals [Internet]. 1999;42(SUPPL. 1):S467–8. Available from:


Di Marzo V, Sepe N, De Petrocellis L, Berger A, Crozier G, Fride E, et al. Trick or treat from food endocannabinoids? [4] (multiple letters). Nature [Internet]. 1998;396(6712):636–7. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Fride E, Ben-Shabat S, Meiri U, Horowitz M. Carbachol, an acetylcholine receptor agonist, enhances production in rat aorta of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, a hypotensive endocannabinoid. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1998;362(1):R1–3. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Fride E, Di Marzo V. Endocannabinoids. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1998;359(1):1–18. Available from:


Ben-Shabat S, Fride E, Sheskin T, Tamiri T, Rhee MH, Vogel Z, et al. An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1998;353(1):23–31. Available from:


Sulcova E, Mechoulam R, Fride E. Biphasic effects of anandamide. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior [Internet]. 1998;59(2):347–52. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Golan D. Comment on ‘Health aspects of cannabis: Revisited’ (Hollister). International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 1998;1(1):83–5. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hanuš L, Fride E. 5 Towards cannabinoid drugs - revisited. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1998;35(C):199–243. Available from:


Gallily R, Yamin A, Waksmann Y, Ovadia H, Weidenfeld J, Bar-Joseph A, et al. Protection against septic shock and suppression of tumor necrosis factor α and nitric oxide production by dexanabinol (HU-211), a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 1997;283(2):918–24. Available from:


Bisogno T, Sepe N, De Petrocellis L, Mechoulam R, Di Marzo V. The sleep inducing factor oleamide is produced by mouse neuroblastoma cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications [Internet]. 1997;239(2):473–9. Available from:


Rhee MH, Vogel Z, Barg J, Bayewitch M, Levy R, Hanuš L, et al. Cannabinol derivatives: Binding to cannabinoid receptors and inhibition of adenylylcyclase. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1997;40(20):3228–33. Available from:


Sheskin T, Hanuš L, Slager J, Vogel Z, Mechoulam R. Structural requirements for binding of anandamide-type compounds to the brain cannabinoid receptor. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1997;40(5):659–67. Available from:


Shohami E, Gallily R, Mechoulam R, Bass R, Ben-Hur T. Cytokine production in the brain following closed head injury: Dexanabinol (HU-211) is a novel TNF-α inhibitor and an effective neuroprotectant. Journal of Neuroimmunology [Internet]. 1997;72(2):169–77. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Todd’s achievement [6]. Nature [Internet]. 1997;386(6627):755. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Fride E, Hanuš L, Sheskin T, Bisogno T, Marzo VD, et al. Anandamide may mediate sleep induction [6]. Nature [Internet]. 1997;389(6646):25–6. Available from:


Shohami E, Weidenfeld J, Ovadia H, Vogel Z, Hanuš L, Fride E, et al. Endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids: Recent advances. CNS Drug Reviews [Internet]. 1996;2(4):429–51. Available from:


Fride E, Mechoulam R. Ontogenetic development of the response to anandamide and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice. Developmental Brain Research [Internet]. 1996;95(1):131–4. Available from:


Bayewitch M, Rhee MH, Avidor-Reiss T, Breuer A, Mechoulam R, Vogel Z. (-)-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol antagonizes the peripheral cannabinoid receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Journal of Biological Chemistry [Internet]. 1996;271(17):9902–5. Available from:


Pop E, Soti F, Brewster ME, Barenholz Y, Korablyov V, Mechoulam R, et al. Derivatives of dexanabinol. II. Salts of amino acid esters containing tertiary and quaternary heterocyclic nitrogen with increased water-solubility. Pharmaceutical Research [Internet]. 1996;13(3):469–75. Available from:


Pop E, Liu ZZ, Brewster ME, Barenholz Y, Korablyov V, Mechoulam R, et al. Derivatives of dexanabinol. I. Water-soluble salts of glycinate esters. Pharmaceutical Research [Internet]. 1996;13(1):62–9. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben Shabat S, Hanuš L, Fride E, Bayewitch M, Vogel Z. Endogenous cannabinoid ligands. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology [Internet]. 1996;402:95–100. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben Shabat S, Hanuš L, Fride E, Vogel Z, Bayewitch M, et al. Endogenous cannabinoid ligands - Chemical and biological studies. Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling [Internet]. 1996;14(1–3):45–9. Available from:


Wilson Jr. RG, Tahir SK, Mechoulam R, Zimmerman S, Zimmerman AM. Cannabinoid enantiomer action on the cytoarchitecture. Cell Biology International [Internet]. 1996;20(2):147–57. Available from:


Fride E, Mechoulam R. Developmental aspects of anandamide: Ontogeny of response and prenatal exposure. Psychoneuroendocrinology [Internet]. 1996;21(2):157–72. Available from:


Barg J, Fride E, Hanus L, Levy R, Matus-Leibovitch N, Heldman E, et al. Cannabinomimetic behavioral effects of and adenylate cyclase inhibition by two new endogenous anandamides. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1995;287(2):145–52. Available from:


Bayewitch M, Avidor-Reiss T, Levy R, Barg J, Mechoulam R, Vogel Z. The peripheral cannabinoid receptor: adenylate cyclase inhibition and G protein coupling. FEBS Letters [Internet]. 1995;375(1–2):143–7. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S, Hanus L, Ligumsky M, Kaminski NE, Schatz AR, et al. Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochemical Pharmacology [Internet]. 1995;50(1):83–90. Available from:


Abrahamov A, Abrahamov A, Mechoulam R. An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology. Life Sciences [Internet]. 1995;56(23–24):2097–102. Available from:


Ovadia H, Wohlman A, Mechoulam R, Weidenfeld J. Characterization of the hypothermic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 in the rat. Relation to the adrenergic system and endogenous pyrogens. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 1995;34(2):1725–175. Available from:


Ovadia H, Wohlman A, Mechoulam R, Weidenfeld J. Characterization of the hypothermic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 in the rat. Relation to the adrenergic system and endogenous pyrogens. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 1995;34(2):175–80. Available from:


Taura F, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Mechoulam R. First Direct Evidence for the Mechanism of Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinolie Acid Biosynthesis. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1995;117(38):9766–7. Available from:


Zuardi AW, Morais SL, Guimaraes FS, Mechoulam R. Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol [3]. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry [Internet]. 1995;56(10):485–6. Available from:


Fride E, Barg J, Levy R, Saya D, Heldman E, Mechoulam R, et al. Low doses of anandamides inhibit pharmacological effects of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 1995;272(2):699–707. Available from:


Glaser R, Adin I, Mechoulam R, Hanuš L. 2-Methyl- and 4-methyl-δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol: Correlation of spatial distinction with cannabinoid receptor binding. Heterocycles [Internet]. 1994;39(2):867–77. Available from:


Martin BR, Childers S, Howlett A, Mechoulam R, Pertwee R. Cannabinoid receptors: Pharmacology, second messenger systems and endogenous ligands. NIDA Research Monograph Series [Internet]. 1994;(140):55–60. Available from:


Vogel Z, Bayewitch M, Levy R, Matus-Leibovitch N, Hanus L, Ben-Shabat S, et al. Binding and functional studies with the peripheral and neuronal cannabinoid receptors. Regulatory Peptides [Internet]. 1994;54(1):313–4. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hanuš L, Martin BR. Search for endogenous ligands of the cannabinoid receptor. Biochemical Pharmacology [Internet]. 1994;48(8):1537–44. Available from:


Schuel H, Goldstein E, Mechoulam R, Zimmerman AM, Zimmerman S. Anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), a brain cannabinoid receptor agonist, reduces sperm fertilizing capacity in sea urchins by inhibiting the acrosome reaction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 1994;91(16):7678–82. Available from:


Pertwee R, Griffin G, Hanuš L, Mechoulam R. Effects of two endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides on mouse vasa deferentia. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1994;259(2):115–20. Available from:


Abu-Lafi S, Sterin M, Levin S, Mechoulam R. Structural features affecting chiral discrimination of terpene derivatives, on a carbamated amylose stationary phase. Journal of Chromatography A [Internet]. 1994;664(2):159–67. Available from:


Rodríguez De Fonseca F, Martín Calderón JL, Mechoulam R, Navarro M. Repeated stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors enhances (-)-11-hydroxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl-induced catalepsy in male rats. NeuroReport [Internet]. 1994;5(7):761–5. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Cannabis chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology and therapeutic applications. Japanese Journal of Forensic Toxicology [Internet]. 1994;12(2):76–83. Available from:


Smith PB, Compton DR, Welch SP, Razdan RK, Mechoulam R, Martin BR. The pharmacological activity of anandamide, a putative endogenous cannabinoid, in mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 1994;270(1):219–27. Available from:


Weidenfeld J, Feldman S, Mechoulam R. Effect of the brain constituent anandamide, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat. Neuroendocrinology [Internet]. 1994;59(2):110–2. Available from:


Guimarães FS, Aguiar JC d., Mechoulam R, Breuer A. Anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol derivatives in the elevated plus-maze. General Pharmacology [Internet]. 1994;25(1):161–4. Available from:


Wirguin I, Mechoulam R, Breuer A, Schezen E, Weidenfeld J, Brenner T. Suppression of experimetal autoimmune encephalomyelitis by cannabinoids. Immunopharmacology [Internet]. 1994;28(3):209–14. Available from:


Järbe TUC, Mechoulam R, Zahalka J. Discriminative stimulus- and open-field effects of the enantiomers of 11-hydroxy-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in pigeons and gerbils. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior [Internet]. 1994;47(1):113–9. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Vogel Z, Barg J. CNS Cannabinoid Receptors: Role and Therapeutic Implications for CNS Disorders. CNS Drugs [Internet]. 1994;2(4):255–60. Available from:


Jarbe TUC, Hiltunen AJ, Mathis DA, Hanus L, Breuer A, Mechoulam R. Discriminative stimulus effects and receptor binding of enantiomeric pairs of cannabinoids in rats and pigeons; A comparison. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 1993;264(2):561–9. Available from:


Levin S, Abu-Lafi S, Zahalka J, Mechoulam R. Resolution of chiral cannabinoids on amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase: Effects of structural features and mobile phase additives. Journal of Chromatography A [Internet]. 1993;654(1):53–64. Available from:


Nadler V, Mechoulam R, Sokolovsky M. The non-psychotropic cannabinoid (+)-(3S,4S)-7-hydroxy-Δ6-tetrahydrocannabinol 1,1-dimethylheptyl (HU-211) attenuates N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat forebrain. Neuroscience Letters [Internet]. 1993;162(1–2):43–5. Available from:


Nadler V, Mechoulam R, Sokolovsky M. Blockade of 45Ca2+ influx through the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ion channel by the non-psychoactive cannabinoid HU-211. Brain Research [Internet]. 1993;622(1–2):79–85. Available from:


Fride E, Mechoulam R. Pharmacological activity of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, anandamide, a brain constituent. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1993;231(2):313–4. Available from:


Martin BR, Cabral G, Childers SR, Deadwyler S, Mechoulam R, Reggio P. International Cannabis Research Society Meeting Summary, Keystone, CO (June 19-20, 1992). Drug and Alcohol Dependence [Internet]. 1993;31(3):219–27. Available from:


Hanuš L, Gopher A, Almog S, Mechoulam R. Two New Unsaturated Fatty Acid Ethanolamides in Brain That Bind to the Cannabinoid Receptor. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1993;36(20):3032–4. Available from:


Vogel Z, Barg J, Levy R, Saya D, Heldman E, Mechoulam R. Anandamide, a Brain Endogenous Compound, Interacts Specifically with Cannabinoid Receptors and Inhibits Adenylate Cyclase. Journal of Neurochemistry [Internet]. 1993;61(1):352–5. Available from:


Shohami E, Novikov M, Mechoulam R. A Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid, HU-211, Has Cerebroprotective Effects After Closed Head Injury in the Rat. Journal of Neurotrauma [Internet]. 1993;10(2):109–19. Available from:


Zlas J, Stark H, Seligman J, Levy R, Werker E, Breuer A, et al. Early medical use of cannabis [5]. Nature [Internet]. 1993;363(6426):215. Available from:


Burstein SH, Audette CA, Doyle SA, Breuer A, Devane WA, Colodner S, et al. Synthetic Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoids with Potent Antiinflammatory, Analgesic, and Leukocyte Antiadhesion Activities. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1992;35(17):3135–41. Available from:


Devane WA, Breuer A, Sheskin T, Järbe TUC, Eisen MS, Mechoulam R, et al. A Novel Probe for the Cannabinoid Receptor. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1992;35(11):2065–9. Available from:


Devane WA, Hanuš L, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Stevenson LA, Griffin G, et al. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science [Internet]. 1992;258(5090):1946–9. Available from:


Nathan I, Agam G, Mechoulam R, Dvilansky A, Livne AA. Effect of synthetic enantiomeric cannabinoids on platelet aggregation. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology [Internet]. 1992;70(10):1305–8. Available from:


Pertwee RG, Stevenson LA, Elrick DB, Mechoulam R, Corbett AD. Inhibitory effects of certain enantiomeric cannabinoids in the mouse vas deferens and the myenteric plexus preparation of guinea‐pig small intestine. British Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1992;105(4):980–4. Available from:


Harvey DJ, Samara E, Mechoulam R. Urinary metabolites of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man and their identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications [Internet]. 1991;562(1–2):299–322. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Breuer A, Feigenbaum JJ, Devane WA. Nonpsychotropic synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Farmaco [Internet]. 1991;46(SUPPL. 1):267–76. Available from:


Zimmerman AM, Titishov N, Mechoulam R, Zimmerman S. Effect of stereospecific cannabinoids on the immune system. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology [Internet]. 1991;288:71–80. Available from:


Zeltser R, Seltzer Z, Eisen A, Feigenbaum JJ, Mechoulam R. Suppression of neuropathic pain behavior in rats by a non-psychotropic synthetic cannabinoid with NMDA receptor-blocking properties. Pain [Internet]. 1991;47(1):95–103. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Devane WA, Breuer A, Zahalka J. A random walk through a cannabis field. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior [Internet]. 1991;40(3):461–4. Available from:


Harvey DJ, Samara E, Mechoulam R. Comparative metabolism of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior [Internet]. 1991;40(3):523–32. Available from:


Martin BR, Compton DR, Thomas BF, Prescott WR, Little PJ, Razdan RK, et al. Behavioral, biochemical, and molecular modeling evaluations of cannabinoid analogs. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior [Internet]. 1991;40(3):471–8. Available from:


Harvey DJ, Mechoulam R. Metabolites of cannabidiol identified in human urine. Xenobiotica [Internet]. 1990;20(3):303–20. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Breuer A, Järbe TUC, Hiltunen AJ, Glaser R. Cannabimimetic Activity of Novel Enantiomeric, Benzofuran Cannabinoids. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1990;33(3):1037–43. Available from:


Howlett AC, Champion TM, Wilken GH, Mechoulam R. Stereochemical effects of 11-OH-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl to inhibit adenylate cyclase and bind to the cannabinoid receptor. Neuropharmacology [Internet]. 1990;29(2):161–5. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Lander N, University A, Zahalka J. Synthesis of the individual, pharmacologically distinct, enantiomers of a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry [Internet]. 1990;1(5):315–8. Available from:


Feigenbaum JJ, Bergmann F, Richmond SA, Mechoulam R, Nadler V, Kloog Y, et al. Nonpsychotropic cannabinoid acts as a functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Internet]. 1989;86(23):9584–7. Available from:


Feigenbaum JJ, Richmond SA, Weissman Y, Mechoulam R. Inhibition of cisplatin-induced emesis in the pigeon by a non-psychotropic synthetic cannabinoid. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1989;169(1):159–65. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Alkaloids in Cannabis Sativa L. Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology [Internet]. 1989;34(C):77–93. Available from:


Titishov N, Mechoulam R, Zimmerman AM. Stereospecific effects of (-)- and (+)-7-hydroxy-delta-6-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyi on the immune system of mice. Pharmacology [Internet]. 1989;39(6):337–49. Available from:


Jarbe TUC, Hiltunen AJ, Mechoulam R. Stereospecificity of the discriminative stimulus functions of the dimethylheptyl homologs of 11-hydroxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats and pigeons. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 1989;250(3):1000–5. Available from:


Little PJ, Compton DR, Mechoulam R, Martin BR. Stereochemical effects of 11-OH-Δ8-THC-dimethylheptyl in mice and dogs. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior [Internet]. 1989;32(3):661–6. Available from:


Järbe TUC, Hiltunen AJ, Mechoulam R. Subjectively experienced cannabis effects in animals. Drug Development Research [Internet]. 1989;16(2–4):385–93. Available from:


Järbe TUC, Hiltunen AJ, Mechoulam R, Srebnik M, Breuer A. Separation of the discriminative stimulus effects of stereoisomers of Δ2- and Δ3-tetrahydrocannabinols in pigeons. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1988;156(3):361–6. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Feigenbaum JJ, Lander N, Segal M, Järbe TUC, Hiltunen AJ, et al. Enantiomeric cannabinoids: stereospecificity of psychotropic activity. Experientia [Internet]. 1988;44(9):762–4. Available from:


Samara E, Bialer M, Mechoulam R. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs. Drug Metabolism and Disposition [Internet]. 1988;16(3):469–72. Available from:


Hollister LE, Gillespie HK, Mechoulam R, Srebnik M. Human pharmacology of 1S and 1R enantiomers of delta-3-tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 1987;92(4):505–7. Available from:


Yocum LB, Denlinger DL, Katlic NE, Brueggemeier RW, Mechoulam R. A developmental profile of estrogen and androgen radioimmunoactive substances in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Insect Biochemistry [Internet]. 1987;17(8):1149–53. Available from:


Srebnik M, Mechoulam R, Yona I. Halogenation of phenols and phenyl ethers with potassium halides in the presence of 18-crown-6 on oxidation with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 [Internet]. 1987;1423–7. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Feigenbaum JJ. Towards cannabinoid drugs. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1987;24(C):159–207. Available from:


Martin AR, Consroe P, Kane VV, Shah V, Singh V, Lander N, et al. Structure-anticonvulsant activity relationships of cannabidiol analogs. NIDA research monograph [Internet]. 1987;79:48–58. Available from:


Consroe P, Mechoulam R. Anticonvulsant and neurotoxic effects of tetrahydrocannabinol stereoisomers. NIDA research monograph [Internet]. 1987;79:59–66. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Lander N, Srebnik M, Breuer A, Segal M, Feigenbaum JJ, et al. Stereochemical requirements for cannabimimetic activity. NIDA research monograph [Internet]. 1987;79:15–30. Available from:


Burstein S, Hunter SA, Latham V, Mechoulam R, Melchior DL, Renzulli L, et al. Prostaglandins and cannabis XV. Comparison of enantiomeric cannabinoids in stimulating prostaglandin synthesis in fibroblasts. Life Sciences [Internet]. 1986;39(19):1813–23. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Interview with Prof. Raphael mechoulam, codiscoverer of THC. Substance Use and Misuse [Internet]. 1986;21(4–5):579–87. Available from:


Järbe TUC, Hiltunen AJ, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Cannabimimetic activity (Δ1-THC cue) of cannabidiol monomethyl ether and two stereoisomeric hexahydrocannabinols in rats and pigeons. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior [Internet]. 1986;25(2):393–9. Available from:


Baek SH, Srebnik M, Mechoulam R. Boron triflouride etherate on alimina - a modified Lewis acid reagent. An improved synthesis of cannabidiol. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1985;26(8):1083–6. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Brueggemeier RW, Denlinger DL. Estrogens in insects. Experientia [Internet]. 1984;40(9):942–4. Available from:


Srebnik M, Mechoulam R. A new easy method for the synthesis of cyclic halogenoethers and halogenolactones. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications [Internet]. 1984;(16):1070–1. Available from:


Srebnik M, Mechoulam R. Reactions of cannabinoid tosylhydrazones. Stereochemical aspects. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1984;40(19):3839–43. Available from:


Edery H, Porath G, Mechoulam R, Lander N, Srebnik M, Lewis N. Activity of novel aminocannabinoids in baboons. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1984;27(10):1370–3. Available from:


Srebnik M, Lander N, Breuer A, Mechoulam R. Base-catalysed double-bond isomerizations of cannabinoids: Structural and stereochemical aspects. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 [Internet]. 1984;2881–6. Available from:


Gez E, Biran S, Fuks Z, Edelstein E, Lander N, Mechoulam R. A marihuana component for nausea and vomiting induced by chemo- and radiotherapy. Harefuah [Internet]. 1983;105(10):306-308+348. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Lander N, Dikstein S, Shalita B. Cannabinoid drugs. Archives of Toxicology [Internet]. 1983;53(Suppl. 6):104. Available from:


Srebnik M, Mechoulam R. A facile method for regiospecific hydroxylation of resorcinol diethers. Synthesis (Germany) [Internet]. 1983;1983(12):1046–8. Available from:


Consroe P, Benedito MAC, Leite JR, Carlini EA, Mechoulam R. Effects of cannabidiol on behavioral seizures caused by convulsant drugs or current in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology [Internet]. 1982;83(3–4):293–8. Available from:


Leite JR, Carlini EA, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Anticonvulsant effects of the (-) and (+)isomers of cannabidiol and their dimethylheptyl homologs. Pharmacology [Internet]. 1982;24(3):141–6. Available from:


Zehavi U, Mechoulam R. O- and C-d-glucosyluronic acid derivatives of Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol: Synthesis and differential behavior to β-glucuronidase. Carbohydrate Research [Internet]. 1981;98(1):143–7. Available from:


Järbe TUC, Swedberg MDB, Mechoulam R. A repeated tests procedure to assess onset and duration of the cue properties of (-)Δ9-THC, (-)Δ8-THC-DMH and (+)Δ8-THC. Psychopharmacology [Internet]. 1981;75(2):152–7. Available from:


Bialer M, El‐On J, Yagen B, Mechoulam R. Antiparasitic structure‐activity relationships of congocidine derivatives. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences [Internet]. 1981;70(7):822–4. Available from:


MECHOULAM R. Current Status of Therapeutic Opportunities Based on Cannabinoid Research. An Overview. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology [Internet]. 1981;21(1 S):2S-7S. Available from:


Noam M, Tamir I, Breuer E, Mechoulam R. Conversion of ruscogenin into 1α- and 1β hydroxycholesterol derivatives. Structure elucidation by computer assisted analysis of their lanthanide-induced nmr shifts. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1981;37(3):597–604. Available from:


Bialer M, Yagen B, Mechoulam R, Becker Y. Structure-Activity Relationships of Pyrrole Amidine Antiviral Antibiotics. 2. Preparation of Mono-and Tripyrrole Derivatives of Congocidine. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1980;23(10):1144–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Lander N, Varkony TH, Kimmel I, Becker O, Ben-Zvi Z, et al. Stereochemical Requirements for Cannabinoid Activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1980;23(10):1068–72. Available from:


Revuelta AV, Cheney DL, Costa E, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Reduction of hippocampal acetylcholine turnover in rats treated with (-)-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol and its 1′,2′-dimethyl-heptyl homolog. Brain Research [Internet]. 1980;195(2):445–52. Available from:


Tamir I, Mechoulam R, Meyer AY. Cannabidiol and Phenytoin: A Structural Comparison. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1980;23(2):220–3. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Lander N, Tamir I, Ben‐Zvi Z, Kimmel Y. Base‐Catalyzed Conversion of an Equatorial into an Axial Methoxycarbonyl Group Due to a 1,5‐Long‐Range Substituent Effect. Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English [Internet]. 1980;19(7):543–543. Available from:


Bialer M, Yagen B, Mechoulam R, Becker Y. Structure–activity relationships of pyrrole amidine antiviral antibiotics III: Preparation of distamycin and congocidine derivatives based on 2,5‐disubstituted pyrroles. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences [Internet]. 1980;69(11):1334–8. Available from:


Bialer M, Yagen B, Mechoulam R. Structure elucidation of a condensation product of 4‐aminopyrrole derivatives and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry [Internet]. 1980;17(8):1797–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Lander N. Cannabis: a possible source of new drugs. Pharmacy International [Internet]. 1980;1(1):19–21. Available from:


Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, et al. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology [Internet]. 1980;21(3):175–85. Available from:


Cordova T, Ayalon D, Lander N, Mechoulam R, Nir I, Puder M, et al. The ovulation blocking effect of cannabinoids: Structure-activity relationships. Psychoneuroendocrinology [Internet]. 1980;5(1):53–62. Available from:


Ohlsson A, Agurell S, Leander K, Dahmén J, Edery H, Porath G, et al. Synthesis and psychotropic activity of side-chain hydroxylated Δ 6-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica [Internet]. 1979;16(1):21–33. Available from:


Agurell S, Edward C, Halldin M, Leander K, Levy S, Lindgren JE, et al. Chemical synthesis and biological occurrence of carboxylic acid metabolites of Δ1(6)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Drug Metabolism and Disposition [Internet]. 1979;7(3):155–61. Available from:


Bialer M, Yagen B, Mechoulam R, Becker Y. Structure-Activity Relationships of Pyrrole Amidine Antiviral Antibiotics. 1. Modifications of the Alkylamidine Side Chain. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1979;22(11):1296–301. Available from:


Rosell S, Björkroth U, Agurell S, Leander K, Ohlsson A, Martin B, et al. Relation between effects of cannabinoid derivatives on the twitch response of the isolated guinea-pig ileum and their psychotropic properties. Advances in the biosciences [Internet]. 1978;22–23:63–70. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Carlini EA. Toward drugs derived from cannabis. Naturwissenschaften [Internet]. 1978;65(4):174–9. Available from:


Levy S, Yagen B, Mechoulam R. Identification of a C-glucuronide of δ6- tetrahydrocannabinol as a mouse liver conjugate in vivo. Science [Internet]. 1978;200(4348):1391–2. Available from:


Bialer M, Yagen B, Mechoulam R. A total synthesis of distamycin a, an antiviral antibiotic. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1978;34(15):2389–91. Available from:


McCallum NK, Gugelmann A, Brenninkmeijer CAM, Mechoulam R. Isotope effect studies on the dehydrogenation of Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Experientia [Internet]. 1977;33(8):1012–4. Available from:


Goldblum A, Mechoulam R. Sodium chromate oxidation of enol benzoates. Allylic oxidation versus a novel rearrangement. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 [Internet]. 1977;1889–98. Available from:


Yagen B, Levy S, Mechoulam R, Ben-Zvi Z. Synthesis and Enzymatic Formation of a C-Glucuronide of Δ6-Tetrahydrocannabino. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1977;99(19):6444–6. Available from:


Lander N, Mechoulam R. Formation of ortho-menthenes by acid-catalysed ring opening of pin-2-ene derivatives. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 [Internet]. 1976;(5):484–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Medicines developed from hashish. Harefuah [Internet]. 1976;90(8):378–80. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Mccallum NK, Burstein S. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biochemistry of Cannabis. Chemical Reviews [Internet]. 1976;76(1):75–112. Available from:


Lander N, Ben-Zvi Z, Mechoulam R, Martin B, Nordqvist M, Agurell S. Total syntheses of cannabidiol and Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 [Internet]. 1976;(1):8–16. Available from:


Meyer AY, Pasternak R, Sterling J, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Spectral effects in cyclobutane derivatives. The bathochromic-hypochromic shifts in compounds related to verbenone. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1976;32(22):2805–10. Available from:


Carlini EA, Mechoulam R, Lander N. Anticonvulsant activity of four oxygenated cannabidiol derivatives. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology [Internet]. 1975;12(1):1–15. Available from:


Banerjee SP, Snyder SH, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoids: influence on neurotransmitter uptake in rat brain synaptosomes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. 1975;194(1):74–81. Available from:


Houry S, Mechoulam R, Loev B. Benzoxocin and Benzoxonin Derivatives. Novel Groups of Terpenophenols with Central Nervous System Activity. A Correction. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1975;18(9):951–2. Available from:


Cais M, Dani S, Josephy Y, Modiano A, Gershon H, Mechoulam R. Studies of cannabinoid metabolites - a free radical immunoassay. FEBS Letters [Internet]. 1975;55(1–2):257–60. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Luchter K, Goldblum A. New method for the oxidation of monoketones to 1,3-diketones. Synthesis (Germany) [Internet]. 1974;1974(5):363–4. Available from:


Houry S, Mechoulam R, Fowler PJ, Macko E, Loev B. Benzoxocin and Benzoxonin Derivatives. Novel Groups of Terpenophenols with Central Nervous System Activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [Internet]. 1974;17(3):287–93. Available from:


Shani A, Mechoulam R. Cannabielsoic acids. Isolation and synthesis by a novel oxidative cyclization. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1974;30(15):2437–46. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Zvi ZB, Agurell S, Nilsson IM, Nilsson JLG, Edery H, et al. Δ6-Tetrahydrocannabinol-7-oic acid, a urinary Δ6-THC metabolite: Isolation and synthesis. Experientia [Internet]. 1973;29(10):1193–5. Available from:


Nilsson IM, Aqurell S, Nilsson JL, Ohlsson A, Lindgren JE, Mechoulam R. Metabolism of 7-hydroxy- 1(6)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rabbit. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica [Internet]. 1973;10(2):97–106. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben-Zvi Z, Varconi H, Samuelov Y. Cannabinoid rearrangements. Synthesis of Δ5-tetrahydrocannabinol. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1973;29(11):1615–9. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Varconi H, Ben-Zvi Z, Edery H, Grunfeld Y. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Five Tetrahydrocannabinol Metabolites. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1972;94(22):7930–1. Available from:


Edery H, Grunfeld Y, Porath G, Ben-Zvi Z, Shani A, Mechoulam R. Structure-activity relationships in the tetrahydrocannabinol series. Modifications on the aromatic ring and it the side-chain. Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research [Internet]. 1972;22(11):1995–2003. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Braun P, Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R, Braun P, Gaoni Y, et al. Syntheses of Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Related Cannabinoids. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1972;94(17):6159–65. Available from:


Nilsson JL, Nilsson IM, Agurell S, Ben-Zvi Z, Mechoulam R. Synthesis of a potential urinary tetrahydrocannabinol metabolite. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica [Internet]. 1972;9(3):215–20. Available from:


Ben-Zvi Z, Mechoulam R, Edery H, Porath G. 6β-hydroxy-Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol synthesis and biological activity. Science [Internet]. 1971;174(4012):951–2. Available from:


Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. The Isolation and Structure of Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Neutral Cannabinoids from Hashish. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1971;93(1):217–24. Available from:


Edery H, Grunfeld Y, Ben‐Zvi Z, Mechoulam R. STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CANNABINOID ACTIVITY. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 1971;191(1):40–53. Available from:


Shani A, Mechoulam R. Photochemical reactions of cannabidiol. Cyclization to Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol and other trans formations. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1971;27(3):601–6. Available from:


Eckstein B, Mechoulam R, Burstein SH. Identification of 5α-Androstane-3α, 17β-diol as a principal metabolite of pregnenolone in rat ovary at onset of puberty. Nature [Internet]. 1970;228(5274):866–8. Available from:


Burstein SH, Menezes F, Williamson E, Mechoulam R. Metabolism of Δ1(6)-tetrahydro-cannabinol, an active marihuana constituent. Nature [Internet]. 1970;225(5227):87–8. Available from:


Ben-Zvi Z, Mechoulam R, Burstein S. Identification through Synthesis of an Active∆1(6)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Metabolite. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1970;92(11):3468–9. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Shani A, Edery H, Grunfeld Y. Chemical basis of hashish activity. Science [Internet]. 1970;169(3945):611–2. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Marihuana chemistry. Science [Internet]. 1970;168(3936):1159–66. Available from:


Ben-Zvi Z, Mechoulam R, Burstein SH. Synthesis of Δ1 and Δ1(6) tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1970;11(51):4495–7. Available from:


Shani A, Mechoulam R. A new type of cannabinoid. Synthesis of cannabielsoic acid A by a novel photo-oxidative cyclisation. Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications [Internet]. 1970;(5):273–4. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben-Zvi Z. Carboxylation of resorcinols with methylmagnesium carbonate. Synthesis of cannabinoid acids. Analytical Proceedings [Internet]. 1969;(7):343–4. Available from:


Yagen B, Mechoulam R. Stereospecific cyclizations and isomerizations of cannabichromene and related cannabinoids. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1969;10(60):5353–6. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Yagen B. Stereoselective cyclizations of cannabinoid 1,5 dienes. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1969;10(60):5349–52. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben-Zvi Z, Yagnitinsky B, Shani A. A new tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1969;10(28):2339–41. Available from:


Bicher HI, Mechoulam R. Pharmacological effects of two active constituents of marihuana. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie [Internet]. 1968;172(1):24–31. Available from:


Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. The ISO‐Tetrahydrocannabinols. Israel Journal of Chemistry [Internet]. 1968;6(5):679–90. Available from:


Mechoulam R. Tetrazolo Steroids. Israel Journal of Chemistry [Internet]. 1968;6(6):909–16. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Yagnitinsky B, Gaoni Y. Stereoelectronic Factor in the Chloranil Dehydrogenation of Cannabinoids. Total Synthesis of dl-Cannabichromene. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1968;90(9):2418–20. Available from:


Burstein S, Mechoulam R. Stereospecifically Labeled Δ1(6)-Tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1968;90(9):2420–1. Available from:


Crombie L, Ponsford R, Shani A, Yagnitinsky B, Mechoulam R. Hashish components. Photochemical production of cannabicyclol from cannabichromene. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1968;9(55):5771–2. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Ben-Zvi Z, Gaoni Y. Hashish-XIII. On the nature of the beam test. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1968;24(16):5615–24. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Braun P, Gaoni Y. A Stereospecific Synthesis of (—)-Δ1- and (—)-Δ11(6)-Tetrahydrocannabinols. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1967;89(17):4552–4. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. Recent advances in the chemistry of hashish. Fortschritte der Chemie organischer Naturstoffe Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products Progrès dans la chimie des substances organiques naturelles [Internet]. 1967;25:175–213. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. The absolute configuration of δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active constituent of hashish. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1967;8(12):1109–11. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Hirshfeld A. The synthesis of zapotidine. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1967;23(1):239–42. Available from:


Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Cannabichromene, a new active principle in hashish. Chemical Communications (London) [Internet]. 1966;(1):20–1. Available from:


Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Concerning the Isomerization of Δ1-to A1(6)-TetrahydrocannabinoI. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1966;88(23):5673–5. Available from:


Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Hashish-VII. The isomerization of cannabidiol to tetrahydrocannabinols. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1966;22(4):1481–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. Erratum: A total synthesis of dl-Δ′-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active constituent of harnish (Journal of the American Chemical Society (1965) 87 (3274)). Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1965;87(24):5811. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. A Total Synthesis of dl-Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol, the Active Constituent of Hashish. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1965;87(14):3273–5. Available from:


Budzikiewicz H, Alpin RT, Lightner DA, Djerassi C, Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. Massenspektroskopie und IHRE anwendung auf strukturelle und stereochemische probleme-LXVIII. Massenspektroskopische untersuchung der inhaltstoffe von haschisch. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1965;21(7):1881–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. Hashish-IV. The isolation and structure of cannabinolic cannabidiolic and cannabigerolic acids. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1965;21(5):1223–9. Available from:


Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. The structure and synthesis of cannabigerol, a new hashish constituent. Proceedings of the Chemical Society [Internet]. 1964;(MARCH):82. Available from:


Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, Structure, and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1964;86(8):1646–7. Available from:


Sondheimer F, Mechoulam R, Sprecher M. The synthesis of 10-hydroxy-10α-testosterone. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1964;20(11):2473–85. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. Pesticides. I. the structure of dihydronicotyrine. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays‐Bas [Internet]. 1963;82(12):1159–62. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Shvo Y. Hashish-I. The structure of Cannabidiol. Tetrahedron [Internet]. 1963;19(12):2073–8. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Danieli N, Mazur Y. The structure and synthesis of oleuropeic acid. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1962;3(16):709–12. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Sondheimer F, Melera A, Kincl FA. The structure of zapotidine. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1961;83(8):2022–3. Available from:


Sondheimer F, Mechoulam R, Sprecher M. 19-hydroxy-10-isotestosterone. Tetrahedron Letters [Internet]. 1960;1(43):38–44. Available from:


Sondheimer F, Burstein S, Mechoulam R. Syntheses in the Cardiac Aglycone Field. III.1 The Conversion of a 14α- to a 14β-Hydroxy Group in the Androstane Series. The Ultraviolet Spectra of Δ15-Androsten-17-ones. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1960;82(12):3209–14. Available from:


Sondheimer F, Mechoulam R. The Diels-Alder reaction of steroidal 20-methylene-Δ16-pregnene derivatives with maleic anhydride. Journal of Organic Chemistry [Internet]. 1959;24(1):106–7. Available from:


Mechoulam R, Sondheimer F. The Wittig Reaction with Fluorenone. Formation of Cyclopropane Derivatives. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1958;80(16):4386–8. Available from:


Sondheimer F, Mechoulam R. Further Aspects of the Wittig Reaction in the Steroid Series. 20-Dehydrocholesterol and 20-Isocholesterol. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1958;80(12):3087–90. Available from:


Sondheimer F, Mechoulam R. Synthesis of Steroidal Methylene Compounds by the Wittig Reaction. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1957;79(18):5029–33. Available from:


Cohen S, Kaluszyner A, Mechoulam R. On the Fluorination of DDT with Hydrogen Fluoride and Mercuric Oxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society [Internet]. 1957;79(22):5979–81. Available from: